Saturday, November 26, 2022

CHRISTIAN EVIDENCES (APOLOGETICS): Does God Exist - Cosmological Argument (published 11-26-2022; article #373; series article #4)

4/7/2017 Photo by Joshua Earle on Unsplash. Free to use under the Unsplash License.


Greetings, once again, dear reader! We are settling comfortably into this series. This is the fourth article on Christian Evidences. The first article, on 10/28/2022, introduced the topic and listed the four questions that this series will answer.

The first question is Does God exist?” The second article, on 11/4/2022, proved that God exists, by the moral argument. The third article, on 11/16/2022, proved the existence of God, by the teleological argument.

This article is the third and final answer to the question: Does God exist? It will affirm the cosmological argument for the existence of God. Each of the three answers proves – independently – that God exists. One proof is sufficient. We have three proofs.

Are you ready to build “the third and final pole” that supports the “bright street light?” Let's get the building project started!

The Cosmological Argument

I have joked for decades that ladies use cosmetics to turn chaos into cosmos! My apologies to the ladies, who are reading. I will explain.

The Greek word κόσμος (kosmos) is the root to “cosmetics” and “cosmology.” “Cosmos” is the transliteration. The word refers to that which is ordered, such as an ordered system (e.g., the universe, the world, etc.). A lady “orders” her face by applying cosmetics. That's how “cosmetics turn chaos into cosmos.” Don't worry ladies. Men's faces usually stay in a state of chaos!

The cosmological argument may appear to be like the teleological argument, which the third article has already proved. Cosmology, however, refers to the study of the origin and structure of the universe. “Cosmological” is used in that sense. The cosmological argument is also called “the argument from origin” or “the argument from cause and effect.”

As the first article states:

The cosmological argument: If the universe is not eternal, then an Eternal First Cause has always existed. The universe is not eternal. Therefore, an Eternal First Cause, God, has always exited. A simpler form is: If something exists, then something or Someone has always existed. Something (i.e., the cosmos and all that is in it, including the earth, you, and me) exists. Therefore, something or Someone, God, has always existed.

Definitions for the argument are from Merriam-Webster Dictionary which is called, with respect, “Mr. Webster.” Note that clarification on the use of “eternal” and “eternity” will be stated.

Eternal (adjective): of or relating to eternity. Eternity (noun): the quality or state of being eternal.
** Notice that Mr. Webster has “defined himself in a circle!” He states that eternal is eternity and that eternity is being eternal. The use of “eternal” and “eternity,” in this argument, means, specifically, “that which has always existed, had no beginning, and will have no end.” The importance of the clarification will present itself, under The Atheist's Further Quibbles, just before the Conclusion. **
First (adjective): preceding all others in time, order, or importance.
** Note that the use of “first,” specifically, means “preceding (being before) all else in time, which also includes order or importance.” **
Cause (noun): something that brings about an effect or a result.
Matter (noun): material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy. 

Major premise: if the universe is not eternal, then an Eternal First Cause has always existed.

The Latin phrase ex nihilo, nihil fit means from nothing, nothing comes. “Nothing” means, obviously, that which does not exist – a vacuum, a void, a null, zero, emptiness, complete nonexistence. If ever there were nothing at all, then nothing would exist now. We understand this innately. It is a self-evident truth. Nothing (that which does not exist) cannot create something. To say that nothing can create something is a logical contradiction. A thought or an idea forms in the mind and soul. It doesn't “just pop into one's head,” from nothing.

I have often asked atheists to believe me when I state, “I was walking down the street and, all of a sudden, I saw a brand new car appear – from thin air, out of nothing!” They don't believe me, of course, but they usually understand where I am going, in my effort to enlighten them!

Obviously, something exists now (e.g., the universe, the earth, the keyboard on which I am typing, you, me, and so forth). Logically, therefore, something or Someone (the Eternal First Cause) has always existed. What or Who is the eternality (that has always existed) that caused (as first cause) that which exists?

The major premise is valid. Next, the fact that the universe is not eternal will be established.

Minor premise: the universe is not eternal.

The atheist must know and prove that matter (i.e., the tangible, the universe and everything that is in it), not mind (i.e., the intangible), is eternal. Matter must have always existed – if God, the Eternal Mind, has not always existed.

Has matter, the tangible universe (in some shape or form), always existed? No, it has not, as the Second Law of Thermodynamics will prove. Matter is finite, not infinite.

After establishing that the universe it not eternal, the refutation of two standard atheist rebuttals will be mentioned. Also, brief comments will be made on the Big Bang theory and on macro-evolution.

Second Law of ThermodynamicsProof that Matter is not Eternal

This section includes certain scientific details. The reference sources contain further details that are not included in this article. Please do not allow the details to overwhelm or distract your focus! The basic point is simple, as will be explained.

First, we must understand and distinguish an “open system,” a “closed system,” and an “isolated system.” In an open system, energy and matter can enter and leave (e.g., an open frying pan, containing meat, vegetables, and water, on a heated stove eye). In a closed system, matter cannot enter or leave, but energy can enter or leave (e.g., a pot, with a lid on it, containing vegetables and water, on a heated stove eye). In an isolated system, neither matter nor energy can enter or leave. A thermos or cooler is an approximate example; however, isolated systems exist only in theory. (Of several sources, see LibreTexts, Basic Definitions, by Emily V. Eames, updated 8/13/2020.)

The Second Law of Thermodynamics is one of the four Laws of Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics is the branch of physics that studies energy transfer, as heat and work, in matter. (Source: Britannica, thermodynamics and laws of thermodynamics.)

The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that the universe contains a finite amount of usable energy that degrades (decays, deteriorates, becomes disordered) over time. This degradation is called entropy. Entropy, thus, is the degradation, running down, unwinding, and trend to disorder of a system, such as the universe. (Sources: the two Britannica references, cited above. Also, among several other sources, see Khan Academy, The laws of thermodynamics – which is based on The laws of thermodynamics, by OpenStax, part of Rice University.)

We understand entropy. Physically, we are born. We grow. If we live long enough, we begin to age and to “run down.” Eventually, we die physically. As another example, I have a 2006 Nissan Frontier truck. If I don't maintain and care for my truck, then he will “run down” faster. Now, I love my ol' truck! My truck, however, is slowly winding down. I am too. So are you. As a final example, every morning, I must bathe myself to order the disorder from a night's sleep. Eventually, I will “run down” to the point that I won't be able to do so. Someone else may have to bathe me. In time, I will die physically and won't need to be bathed. We can restore order, temporarily, in the relentless trend to disorder (entropy). Entropy, however, wins in the end. The fact is established by science and understood in life practically.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics – an established law of science that we understand practically – confirms that matter, the tangible universe, is “winding down.” It is finite. Matter will “wind down” completely at, what is called scientifically, maximum entropy, thermal equilibrium, or “heat death.” Since matter is finite, then it had to have been started (as in winding a watch) – by an infinite something or Someone.

The basic point is simple. Matter, the tangible universe is not eternal. It is finite. It is winding down. It had a beginning. The minor premise is valid.

The following sidetracks are on the refutation of two standard atheist rebuttals, brief comments on the Big Bang theory, and brief comments on macro-evolution. The conclusion will follow these sidetracks.

Refutation of Two Standard Atheist Replies

The atheist -- in his blind, atheistic faith -- may fight against the scientifically established fact that the universe is not eternal. The following are not two “straw men” that are built (which is a fallacy in logic). They are known counter statements by atheists, which I have heard personally. The refutation of two standard atheist replies, to the scientific fact that the universe is not eternal, are given, to assist readers, who may encounter the quibbles.

But, wait!” – the atheist may state first“what about the First Law of Thermodynamics, which states that matter cannot be created or destroyed? Matter must be eternal, if it can't be created or destroyed.”

Yes, as the citations above confirm, the First Law of Thermodynamics states that – in a closed system – matter (i.e., tangible mass and energy) cannot be created or destroyed.

Matter, however, is not eternal. It is finite, as the Second Law of Thermodynamics establishes. Further, “matter” (nothingness) could not create (spontaneously generate) matter (tangible mass and energy). That would violate the First Law of Thermodynamics, in a closed system, and the self-evident truth that “from nothing, nothing comes.”

The universe (i.e., all the tangible mass and energy that exists physically), therefore, has to be an open system – whereby a non-physical and eternal force (not mass, matter, or energy) – that exists before and above the universe – created the physical universe. (For further study, see God and the Laws of Thermodynamics: A Mechanical Engineer’s Perspective, on Apologetics Press, by Jeff Miller, PhD, published 4/1/2007.) The atheist's first “but wait!” does him no good.

But wait!” – the atheist may continue – “the Big Bang proves that the universe and all life in it evolved. Thus, there is no God.”

The fact that the universe is not eternal, could not have created itself, and had to have been created by an eternal, non-physical, first cause has already been established. The atheist must admit this truth. The Big Bang theory does not help him. The atheist's second “but wait!” falls by the wayside in defeat.

Brief Comment on the Big Bang Theory

The following summarizes the Big Bang theory (or theories), with references, if any reader would like to study the topic further independently.

Do not allow conversations with atheists or independent study of the Big Bang theory (or theories) to intimidate you! The theory is a big bust (or failure). See the Institute for Creation Research article The Big Bust, by Henry M. Morris, PhD, 5/1/1994. The article is timeless truth, despite having been written almost three decades ago.

What is the Big Bang theory (or theories)? The Big Bang is an astronomical theory that was postulated about a hundred years ago, has undergone several revisions, continues to be revised, and has several versions. (Various versions of the Big Bang theory continue to evolve.) A predominate version of the theory speculates that the universe started violently, about 13.8 billion years ago, by the explosion of a very small, very hot, and very dense singularity. The theory states that, over billions of years, the initial “bang” expanded, changed, and evolved, to form the universe, the Milky Way galaxy, our solar system, the earth, you, and me. The theory is used to support the theory of macro-evolution (or the molecules to man theory).

My grade school and high school science teachers had to teach me this version of the Big Bang theory – even if they didn't believe it. Of the many sources that explain the theory and revisions, the ThoughtCo article – Understanding the Big-Bang Theory: The theory behind the origin of the universe, by Andrew Zimmerman Jones (MS Mathematics Education, BA Physics), updated 6/11/2019 – is good enough. The article points out the history of the Big Bang theory, revisions to the theory, alleged evidence for it, problems with it, and questions that the theory cannot answer.

By the way, the predominate version of the Big Bang theory alleges that the universe is 13.8 billions years old. The alleged age of the universe had been calculated more widely. For example, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) article – Then vs. Now: The Age of the Universe, published in May 2006 – states: “Before 1999, astronomers had estimated that the age of the universe was between 7 and 20 billion years.” The article – which assumes that the Big Bang is true, with no solid evidence – explains how the various alleged ages of the universe have been redetermined during this century.

It is significant to note that the predominate Big Bang theory begins with the assumption that an undefined “singularity” already existed. The theory is that an unknown “singularity” exploded, which started time and space. (The “clock wound up and started ticking.”)

Big Bang theorists speculate that they can calculate the evolution of the universe, starting at 10-43 seconds after the Big Bang. Of various sources, two are cited. See EarthHow, The History of the Universe: The Big Bang and Beyond, author not listed, updated 5/12/2022. See also National Geographic, The most popular theory of our universe's origin centers on a cosmic cataclysm unmatched in all of history – the big bang. By Michael Greshko and National Geographic Staff, 1/18/2017.

In summary on this point, the predominate version of the Big Bang theorizes that, billions of years ago, a random quantum fluctuation occurred in a spaceless, timeless “singularity.” That fluctuation (or bang), over billions of years, formed the known universe.

The unknown “singularity” was, according to the predominate Big Bang theory, smaller than the size of the period at the end of this sentence. The theory does not and cannot explain the origin of the “singularity” (i.e., the very small, very hot, and very dense substance that existed before the Big Bang). The entirety of the immense universe started by the explosion of a dot? That's their theory, in a nutshell, and they don't know how the dot got there. (A nutshell is much larger than a dot.)

The atheist, therefore, must know, and cannot know, the origin of the theoretical “singularity,” which could not have been eternal, even if it had existed.

By the way, other versions of the Big Bang theory exist. These include (with my comments italicized):

The multiverse: one “singularity” exploded or “banged” and has formed and is forming an ongoing multitude of other universes besides ours. What or Who started the first “bang?”
The oscillating universe: there is an endless series of “big bangs” and “big crunches.” Again, what or Who started the first “bang?” An “endless series” is a logical contradiction. The line had to start somewhere.
The “flat hologram” universe: the universe is only a projection on the surface of a vast sphere. Really? Is this a joke? What or Who created the vast sphere?
The digital simulation universe: the universe is only code inside an immense computer. I did not and cannot make up this one! It's imagination gone wild. What or Who created the hypothetical immense computer?

One source, for the four versions listed, is on, Alternatives to the Big Bang Theory, by Karl Tate, contributions from Daisy Dobrijevic, published 3/8/2022.

For further study on the Big Bang theory or theories, see – Answers in Genesis, under Topics, and select Big Bang topic page. The page explains five problems with the Big Bang theory. Several other articles that debunk the Big Bang theory are listed in that topic page.

Brief Comment on Macro-Evolution

Macro-evolution is the Darwinian “molecules to man” theory that speculates -- with no proof – that life evolved from non-life (“the rocks to molecules” theory). Darwinian theory speculates that life, which evolved from non-life, continued to evolve, eventually evolving into human life. The theory was introduced just over 160 years and continues to be revised. (Darwinian evolutionary theory continues to evolve.)

Darwinian scientists express their theory in intricate, scientific jargon, which intimidates some to believe the theory. Do not allow their jargon to intimidate you! They have no proof to support their theory. Their jargon reasons in a circle – by using assumptions, based on their conclusion, that, in their minds only, “prove” their conclusion. Such circular reasoning is a logical fallacy.

The theory violates the law of biogenesis, which has established that new life always comes from existing life, not from non-living matter. Of course, anyone with common sense knows this.

For comprehensive and further study on Big Bang theories, macro-evolution (Darwinism), and proof that God exists, see – Proof Evolution is False, by Shawn Nelson (Doctor of Ministry in Apologetics), February 2014. (The article can be downloaded.) It is a 31-page scholarly paper, which encapsulates the flaws in Darwinian evolution. Note that Dr. Shawn Nelson's ongoing website is Geeky Christian. His academic work is on Nelson.Ink, from which his February 2014 article is cited. I may not agree with all of his articles. I accept and agree with his paper that I have cited.

Darwinian evolution relies on the refuted Big Bang theory and does not help the atheist. It is hoped that these brief sidetracks did not distract the reader's attention to the main purpose of this article.

Let's return now to that main purpose. The major and minor premises have been established. The conclusion is next.

Conclusion: therefore, an Eternal First Cause, God, has always exited.

Since the universe is not eternal (is finite), then an Eternal First Cause has always existed. This article has proved it.

The Eternal First Cause is called God – the Eternal Mind, Power, and Intellect, Who has always existed, above and before matter, space, and time. The argument is sound and must be true. It cannot be wrong.

The Atheist's Further Quibbles

The atheist, in labored effort to support his position, may offer a few more quibbles. The rebuttal of two will be brief.

First, the atheist may ask, “What if an infinite line of 'First Causes' caused the universe?” The reply, obviously, is that an infinite line is a logical contradiction. Every line must start somewhere! What eternality, or Eternal Being, started the line? God is the Necessary (or First) Cause.

Second, the atheist may ask and state, “What if the “First Cause” died? Your argument does not prove that God is still alive.” The reply, again, is obvious. If ever nothing or no one existed, then nothing would exist now. An eternality, or Eternal Being, has always existed and, therefore, cannot die. This is why the specific definition of “eternal” and “eternity,” in this argument, means “that which has always existed, had no beginning, and will have no end.”


This article has explained that the universe could exist by only three possible means. The first is spontaneous generation (creating itself from nothing). That has been verified as false. The second is an eternal universe. That has been disproved. The third and final is that God created the universe. That is proved.

Atheists rely on one thin “match stick” (the Big Bang theory) to prop up their “short, little stool.” This article has broken that “match stick.” Their “stool” has fallen.

This article is the third and final “strong pole” that supports the “bright street light.” May these three articles be used, to God's glory, as the first step to bring many non-believers to saving faith in Christ.

The first sentence in the Bible is a fitting conclusion:

In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. (Genesis 1:1, NIV)

Wednesday, November 16, 2022

CHRISTIAN EVIDENCES (APOLOGETICS): Does God Exist - Teleological Argument (published 11-16-2022; article #372; series article #3)

4/7/2017 Photo by Joshua Earle on Unsplash. Free to use under the Unsplash License.


Greetings, dear reader! I trust that you are well. This is the third article on the topic of Christian Evidences. The first article, on 10/28/2022, introduced the topic series and explained the purpose for writing it. The second article, on 11/4/2022, proved the existence of God, by the moral argument.

This article is the second answer – of three answers – to the question: Does God exist? This article affirms the teleological argument for the existence of God. Each answer proves – independently – that God exists. One proof is sufficient. We have three proofs.

Are you ready to build “the second pole” that supports the “bright street light?” This article builds that second pole.

The Teleological Argument

“Teleological” (Greek transliteration of τελεολογικός) is the academic term, which means end reason. The argument can be called “the argument from design” or “the design argument.” The line of reasoning is deductive. As will be shown, the argument is both valid and sound; therefore, it is true.

As the first article states:

The teleological argument: If the creation (i.e., the universe, the earth, the human body, etc.) indicates intelligent design, then an Intelligent Designer exists. The creation indicates intelligent design. Therefore, an Intelligent Designer, God, exists.

Definitions used for the argument are from Merriam-Webster Dictionary – with one exception, which will be explained.

Creation: the act of bringing the world into ordered existence.
Intelligent design: the theory that matter, the various forms of life, and the world were created by a designing intelligence.
Design: a mental project or scheme in which means to an end are laid down.
Designer: one who creates and often executes plans for a project or structure.

The exception is that “intelligent design” is fact, not theory. This article will prove that the Creator created and designed His creation. Future articles will establish that the Creator created according to His eternal purpose and plan.

Major premise: if the creation (i.e., the universe, the earth, the human body, etc.) indicates intelligent design, then an Intelligent Designer exists.

We understand, innately, the concept of “design.” It is self-evident. For example, in the year 2002, my intellect designed the initial building plans for our house. (We moved in on 6/7/2003.) I took the photograph (below) of our house on 1/29/2022 – when a little snow was on the ground. Two vehicles – which had been designed and built by intelligence – were in the garage. The porch furnishings had been designed and built by intelligence. What intellect designed the trees that are in the background?

Every design has a designer. The truth is axiomatic (self-evident). Our house did not simply appear, from nothing, one fine morning! Intelligence designed and built it.

The atheist may quibble that not every design has a designer and claim that snowflakes have design without a designer. The reply, of course, is obvious. The United States government's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration article – How do snowflakes form? Get the science behind snow, 12/19/2016 – has microscopic views of snowflakes and explains that certain weather conditions create snowflakes! Ask the atheist, “Who created the world and the weather conditions that cause snowflakes?”

The major premise is valid. Moving along, next, the minor premise will be established.

Minor premise: the creation (the universe, the earth, the human body, etc.) indicates intelligent design.

The creation – all that exists, in the space-time continuum, including us – indicates (points to) intelligent design. Evidence from the universe, the earth, and the human body are three, of several, lines of proof.

The Universe

The universe is immense. Looking into a clear sky at night, we see countless stars. We live on planet earth, in our sun's solar system. Our solar system is in the Milky Way galaxy. There are billions of galaxies.

The United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a featured article – How Big is Our Universe? – that speculates that the universe could be “infinitely large” – and that it is expanding. The article also speculates, theoretically, that other universes could exist.

Several sources speculate that the universe is about 92 or so billion light-years in diameter. For example, the article – How big is the universe? By Nola Taylor Tillman and Jonathan Gordon, published 1/28/2022 (with assumptions based on the unproven Big Bang theory)speculates that the observable (by telescopes) universe is “28 billion light-years in diameter.”

The article references sources and speculates, however, that the universe (beyond telescopic observance) could be “around 92 billion light-years” in diameter, or could be “at least 7 trillion light-years across,” or could be infinitely large. The various speculations depend on the shape of the universe (i.e., “closed like a sphere, infinite and negatively curved like a saddle, or flat and infinite”).

Yes, to say that the universe is immense is an understatement, even if its size and shape are unknown.

The universe is complex and governed by “fundamental constants.” NASA's How Big is Our Universe? article (as referenced above) includes evolutionary assumptions but states, regarding our galaxy: “The Milky Way is a huge city of stars . . . .”

Cities are designed. Who designed the “huge city of stars” that compose our Milky Way galaxy? (The Milky Way is one of billions of galaxies.) The article describes several complexities of the universe, including our solar system, our Milky Way galaxy, pulse rate of stars, supernovae, and “. . . the vast panorama of the observable universe.”

Fundamental constants, or laws, govern the universe. These are physical laws (or laws of physics). The universe is governed by at least 23 fundamental constants or physical laws. What are these constants of the universe? Research finds several scholarly articles on the subject. The following is only one reference.

The article, on ScienceBlogs (part of Science 2.0), is: The Fundamental Constants Behind Our Universe, by Dr. Ethan Siegel (PhD in theoretical astrophysics), 5/29/2013. The introduction speculates the age of the universe, by the unproven Big Bang theory. The author then lists and explains the “26 fundamental constants,” or “the laws” “that govern” “our Universe.” The article details each constant or law.

Some of the universal constants or laws are familiar to us – such as the speed of light, Newton's laws of gravity, Newton's laws of motion, the laws of thermodynamics, and others. The author concludes by stating:

We don't yet know where the values of these constants come from, or whether that's something that will ever be known with the information available in our Universe.

Intelligent minds have discovered the fundamental constants, or laws, that govern our complex universe. Evolutionists “don't yet know” the source of “the values of these constants.” I affirm that an Intelligent Designer is the source of those fundamental constants.

Have you heard of the anthropic principle? The Britannica article, anthropic principle states that that the universe appears to have been structured for human life. The article goes into further detail on the origin and meaning of the “anthropic principle.” The first paragraph of the article states:

anthropic principle, in cosmology, any consideration of the structure of the universe, the values of the constants of nature, or the laws of nature that has a bearing upon the existence of life.

“Structure,” by common definition, refers to that which is arranged, or organized, in a definite pattern. This article affirms, not only that an Intelligent Designer is the source of the fundamental constants of our complex universe, but also that the Designer used them to create all life – including human life.

The Earth

The earth is a unique planet. The Britannica entry on Earth (by Raymond Jeanloz, last updated 10/18/2022) includes at least sixteen pages of depth and detailed information. The article assumes the unproven theory of evolution and supports the theory of “man-made” global climate change, which is a fierce topic of political and scientific debate, as this article is being written. The entry, however, includes several known facts.

The entry begins by stating:

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the fifth largest planet in the solar system in terms of size and mass. Its near-surface environments are the only places in the universe known to harbour life.

The earth is unique, since it is the only known place in our immense and complex universe that is the home of life. The following are seven, of many, facts that the article details, which have made life on earth possible.

Earth's distance from and orbit around the sun: the earth, unlike other planets in our solar system, is the right distance from the sun (149,600,000 kilometers or 92,960,000 miles). Closer would be much hotter. Farther would be much colder. The earth orbits the sun every 365.25 days (once a year). The orbit is elliptical (or oval). The “orbital eccentricity” (variation in the earth's orbit) is 0.0167 – which is very slight. If the variation were less, then the earth could plunge into the sun. If it were more, then the earth could fly outwardly into space.

Earth's size, spin, and axis: at the equator, the circumference of the earth is 40,076 kilometers (24,902 miles.) The earth spins (rotates on its axis) every 23 hours, 56 minutes, and four seconds (once a day). The earth tilts on its axis at 23.44 degrees (which produces the four seasons).

Earth's atmosphere has the right mixture for life – 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen. The other 1% includes other gases. The atmosphere has layers (from lowest to highest): troposphere stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. The atmosphere protects us from the sun's harmful radiation.

Earth's hydrosphere includes surface waters (liquid and frozen), groundwater (in soil and rock), and water vapor in the atmosphere. About 71% of the earth's surface is covered by ocean. (My father was a water well-driller, so I know about drilling wells, to find groundwater.) The earth's hydrologic cycle transfers water from the hydrosphere to the atmosphere in a continual cycle (e.g., rain falls and eventually recycles into the clouds).

The moon - the earth's satellite: the moon orbits the earth, at a distance of 384,400 kilometers (238,900 miles). The moon stabilizes the earth's axis, creates ocean tides, and provides “a night light.” The distance between the earth and the moon is exactly right for life.

Earth's gravitational field: gravity is what holds our feet to the ground and gives us weight. The mass (size) of the earth produces gravity. The earth “pulls down” on us (gravitational acceleration), at sea level, at about 980 cm/sec2 (32.2 feet/sec2). If gravity were stronger, then we could not be able to move or be crushed. If gravity were weaker, then we could have trouble staying on the ground or float into space.

Earth's magnetic field: the magnetic field is what points a compass north. It surrounds and protects our planet from the sun's solar winds. The strength of the magnetic field is exactly right for life.

Intelligent minds have discovered these, and many other, facts about our unique planet. The earth is the only known planet, in our immense and complex universe, that is the home of life.

Planet earth evidences extremely detailed and accurate points of design, which have been referenced. This evidence points to a very Intelligent Designer.

The Human Body

A healthy human body comprises an amazingly complex number of systems that function in perfectly organized symmetry. Of many sources, please see the guide Human Body Systems – contributors: Shani Saks, MD; Reitze Rodseth MBBS, PhD; Lynette Stewart, BSN. The introduction states:

Organs of the human body are commonly grouped into eleven systems. Each body system includes organs and structures that serve a common purpose. The systems are highly interdependent, working together to sustain life and enable interaction with the surrounding environment.

The guide explains each of the eleven systems of the human body. Intelligence has grouped the organs of the human body into eleven systems. What Intelligence created the human body?

The human brain is the world's best computer. Our eyes are the best video camera. Our heart is the best pumping device. The analogy can be continued to associate other parts of our bodies to devices that intelligence created. Intelligence designed the computer, video camera, and pump. Who designed the brain, eyes, and heart?

Intelligent designers create artificial (replacement) parts for a damaged human body. Of many sources, please see the NEO.LIFE article: Replace Your Used Body Parts With a Bionic Upgrade: A soft robotics researcher says bionic limbs that imitate living tissues could be viable within a decade. By Stav Dimitropoulos, 9/15/2022. The article compares the human hand to a “bionic” (artificial) hand (created by human intelligence). Regarding the human hand, the author states:

Take the human hand, for example. It’s an incredibly complex and versatile part of the body, containing 27 bones, innumerable muscles, and a mind-numbing quantity of ligaments and tendons. The tiniest grab of an object is the sublime end product of the synergistic work of all these hand components.

Regarding the “bionic” hand (designed by human intelligence) the author states:

A bionic hand, on the other hand, works by detecting signals coming from a user’s muscles. When the user flexes the muscles in their residual limb just below their elbow, special sensors placed on their skin pick up small electric signals, which are converted into intentional bionic hand movement.

Intelligence created the “bionic” hand. Who created the original human hand?

By way of a personal illustration, on 3/29/2016, I almost died, when the other driver violated my right of way. My brain, left eye, left shoulder, right knee, and right foot were damaged. I was hospitalized 36 days. My brain and left eye recovered fully, with no surgery needed. My left shoulder, right knee, and right foot required surgery, to repair the damage. I have a total of 25 surgically installed metal items (i.e., rods, pins, screws) in those three joints.

The X-ray of my left shoulder (below) was taken on 6/27/2016. The skilled surgeon used ten metal items (one rod and nine screws) to reconstruct my left shoulder.

Who had constructed my original shoulder, before it was damaged?

The creation – specifically, the universe, the earth, and the human body – indicates (points to) intelligent design. The minor premise is valid.

Conclusion: therefore, an Intelligent Designer, God, exists.

Since the creation (i.e., the universe, the earth, the human body, etc.) indicates intelligent design, then an Intelligent Designer exists. This article has proved it.

The Intelligent Designer is called God – the divine architect of the universe. The argument is sound and must be true. It cannot be wrong.

The Atheist's Quibble

The atheist may quibble, by claiming “faults” in God's designed creation. He may theorize that the human body could have been designed better. He may point to various defects in the earth that cause various and significant natural disasters.

The reply is simply that God, the Creator, created according to his eternal plan. Later articles, in this Christian Evidences series, will explore the nature of God and the inspiration of the Bible. As those articles will prove, the Creator designed the earth perfectly, perfectly fit for perfectly created humans. Sin, however, as God knew would happen, entered the world. The physical deterioration of aging and death are the consequences of sin. The earth was damaged, due to the worldwide flood, in the time of Noah. The earth continues to endure that damage, which causes natural disasters.

The atheist should be careful in his quibbles. The prophet Isaiah cited the word of the Lord:

Shall what is formed say to the one who formed it, “You did not make me”? Can the pot say to the potter, “You know nothing”? (Isaiah 29:16, NIV)

See also Isaiah 45:9 and Romans 9:20. The atheist, as the pot, does not need to question the Creator, the Potter, as to why He designed the universe, the earth, or the human body, in the fashion that He did.

Rest assured, dear reader, that all the atheist's quibbles are easily resolved and fall away. Later articles in this series will elaborate.


Our imaginary street light now has two strong poles to support it. The teleological argument, by itself, proves that God exists.

We have one more pole to build – the cosmological argument – that, alone, will also prove that God exists. This article is enough “pole building” for now.

Biblical faith is grounded in evidence, as these articles on God's existence are establishing. By evidentiary faith, we see and know the unseen.

The words of the apostle Paul will conclude this article:

For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities – his eternal power and divine nature – have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that people are without excuse. (Romans 1:20, NIV)

Sunday, November 06, 2022

11-5-2022 Football Review: #3 GA Bulldogs Showed #1 TN Vols Who Is #1 (published 11-6-2022; article #371)

M. Fearghail, at Heritage days, 10/10/2021, at 3:22 PM. Photograph by Mrs. Appalachian Irishman.

Introduction - Setting the Scene

The weather yesterday (Saturday, 11/5/2022) was T-shirt warm, cloudy, and rainy off and on. Bravely, I donned the same Georgia T-shirt, as in the photograph. My outdoor activity included hauling trash and recycling. A few folks saw me wearing my Georgia T-shirt. No one commented. Afterward, before the game, I talked briefly with folks outside, in a next door neighbor's yard. They were having a “yard sale.” (I offered to buy their yard, but they were only selling the stuff that was in their yard.) One tall and wiry feller, who looked to be about my age, “warned” that he'd get his shotgun out of his van, to “shoot” me! We had a little fun. They know that Tennessee is still my second favorite college football team.

Mrs. Appalachian Irishman had shopped for groceries and household items. She'd visited with her folks, nearby. She returned home – just after the game had started, at 3:30 PM (“govrmint” time).

Rankings as of Games Through Saturday, 10/29/2022

Before the game, the college football top three rankings were as follows, through games played as of Saturday, 10/29/2022.

AP Poll (via NCAA AP Poll, through games as of 10/29/2022):
    #1 Georgia (8-0, 1528 points)
    #2 tie between Ohio State and Tennessee (both
         8-0, both 1500 points)

Coaches Poll (via USA Today Coaches Poll, through games as of 10/29/2022):

    #1 Georgia (8-0, 1552 points)
    #2 Ohio State (8-0, 1505 points)
    #3 Tennessee (8-0, 1455 points)

Georgia continued to be ranked #1 in both polls – appropriately.

As a side note, on Saturday, 10/29/2022, my wife and I had taken our '12 Nissan Sentra (her car) and our '06 Nissan Frontier (my truck) to get oil changes, at the same time. A gentleman, a year or so older than me, was at the Service Street location also. He wore his Ohio State Buckeyes sweatshirt (on a warm day). He and I talked awhile, after my wife left in the car. (Ladies first on oil changes.) The gentleman's last name is Yankee, but he is not a Yankee! He was born in Ohio. His wife and he had lived in Florida. They had “half-backed” to live in Tennessee. Mr. Yankee and I spoke on sports, “poly-tics,” and Christianity. He's a brother in Christ. I wished his wife and he well – and Ohio State well, unless against Georgia or Tennessee!

College Football Playoff (CFP) - via NCAA College Football CFP through games as of Saturday, 10/29/2022:

    #1 Tennessee 8-0
    #2 Ohio State 8-0
    #3 Georgia 8-0

I understood why Ohio State was #2 in the AP, Coaches, and CFP polls. Why, in the CFP poll, did Tennessee rank #1 and Georgia rank #3?

In their first eight games, Tennessee had beaten five ranked teams (Pittsburgh, Florida, LSU, Alabama, and Kentucky) – while Georgia had beaten only one ranked team (Oregon). That's probably why the CFP poll ranked as it did, on 10/29/2022.

As a side note, in their first eight games, Tennessee had averaged 49(.38) points per game on offense and allowed an average of 21 points per game against them on defense. Georgia had averaged 41(.75) offensive points per game and allowed on average 10(.5) points per game against them.

The Game

The rain that had poured, briefly, here, had started and continued to pour, in Athens, Georgia, after halftime. The rain had stopped near the end of the game.

Watching the game on TV, my glib Irish tongue rained out in eloquence – as I reacted and commented at frequent occasions! During the game, however, Mrs. Appalachian Irishman admitted, finally, that she wanted Tennessee to win. She likes Georgia, but she supports Tennessee. (She has a master's degree from the University of Tennessee - Knoxville.) She did not wear one of her orange Tennessee T-shirts, however.

I curbed my glib tongue, once my “long-suffering” wife admitted -- finally, after three years – that she likes Tennessee better than Georgia, in college football. After all, it's just a college football game.

Her feelings probably come from the days when the Tennessee Lady Vols, under Pat Summitt, and the Georgia Lady Bulldogs, under Andy Landers (or “Ann Landers,” as I'd called him), were intense women's college basketball rivals. I still favor the Tennessee Lady Vols over any other women's college basketball team, dear! My allegiance is to Georgia college football only! I can parse the distinction between college football and women's college basketball.

Before the game, I had predicted that Georgia would win by 10 to 14 points. Georgia won by 14 points. The box score, by quarter and final score, below, is from NCAA 11/5/2022: Tennessee (8-1) 13 - Final - Georgia (9-0) 27.

Quarter: 1    2    3    4    Final
TN          3   3    0    7    13
GA       14  10   3    0     27

The Vols got their only touchdown of the game, with four minutes and 15 seconds left in the fourth quarter. At 2:42 left in the game, the Dawgs took over on downs, at the Vols' 39 yard line. After three running plays, Georgia had advanced to the Tennessee 25 yard line. Instead of kicking a field goal, the Dawgs took a victory kneel formation and won the game.

As the adage goes, “offenses win games, but defenses win championships.” Both teams have great offenses. Tennessee has a good defense. Georgia has a great defense. Georgia won by having the stronger defense. The home field advantage (12th man) certainly helped. Nice try, Vols! Great win, Dawgs!

Reply to Four Vol Fans

To the “long-suffering” Mrs. Appalachian Irishman, I'm glad that you “came out,” yesterday, that you remain a Vols football fan. As you know, in 2019, I relegated the Vols to be my second favorite college football team, when I promoted the Dawgs to my favorite team. I am not a “fan” or “fanatic” (extremely enthusiastic) about any sports team. As I have written, in several articles that mention college football, I had decided that Saturdays are much more enjoyable, as a follower of Georgia football. I don't have enough decades left in life, to await the return of the Vols to their former greatness.

Okay, the Vols are doing well this year. I'm happy for them! I have written, however, about the Vols' “coaching carousel,” since Phillip Fulmer – most recently on 9/18/2022 and 10/19/2022.

I wonder when Josh Heupel, who is doing well as the Vols' current head coach, will leave the Vols and return to his alma mater, to coach for the Oklahoma Sooners. This article is my prediction that he will – in a few years.

On Friday, 11/4/2022, I received a text from a former work colleague, which expressed the desire to see the Vols beat the Dawgs, the next day. I haven't replied yet. I thought about replying, after the game yesterday. I may reply tomorrow. Fridays were casual days at the office. Before I retired, I often wore my Georgia football T-shirt on Fridays. My colleague wore Tennessee football T-shirts. We enjoyed the humor in the rivalry. We are both Christians, so the ongoing rivalry is temporal.

After the game, I saw a post by a friend from my hometown. He used explicit and colorful metaphors to deride folks, who were born and raised in Tennessee, but who support a football team in another state – such as I do. This paragraph is my reply to him. What is my reply? “Yawn. Laughter. Your reasoning is subjective and inflamed by the Vols' loss to Georgia. You are welcome to keep your opinionated anger to yourself. I suggest that you stop drinking so much orange Kool-Aid. Your eyes look a little blurry! Do you have enough decades left in life, to await the Vols' return to greatness? Yes, they are doing well enough this year, but why are you angry and why am I happy? I don't throw a hissy fit when Georgia loses. Where are your priorities? I still love you, in Christ.”

Finally, a good friend emailed several of us today, on the Vols' loss yesterday. A sentence in his email included his humor on the loss: “The Vols were kidnapped, and a bunch of look-alikes took their place for the Georgia game.” My friend's email made several serious points. I liked his humorous point (cited) the best! He wasn't mad. He knows that I follow Georgia first then Tennessee – in college football.

By the Way - “Govrmint” Time Ended!

Getting of the mundane topic of college football, I had “so much fun” – setting back an hour 14 different time pieces – early this morning. Whew! At least we are off “govrmint” time finally!

Starting tomorrow, Mrs. Appalachian Irishman will be able to leave for work, with a little bit of early morning light forming – instead of driving to work in full darkness. For early risers, this is better – and safer.

The addendum to my 3/19/2022 article cited a valid source, to prove that – if “govrmint” time were year-round – then the sun would not rise until 8:47 AM, from January 1 through January 11 – of any given year. The addendum includes: “Do you want school-aged children arriving at school in the dark? Do you want to work almost an hour before the sun rises? I did not think so!”

I'm glad to be done with “govrmint” time once again – until next spring.


College football season is enjoyable. It's drawing near the end. Three games remain in the regular season. The “thousands” of bowl games will start. The College Football Playoff will determine the national championship team. As a Dawgs follower first, I enjoy Saturdays better that I would – if I were a Vols follower first. (The Vols are my second favorite team, y'all!)

I hope that my hometown friend knows the Good Lord personally. He may. His post of yesterday contained colorful adjectives that my glib Irish tongue prefers not to use (except in rare moments of anger or frustration). The Good Lord forgives my tongue, after I apologize to him. I also apologize to others who may hear me, but it's usually me talking with myself, when only God hears me.

Now that I have this sports article finished, my mind shifts to my third article, in the Christian Evidences series. I plan to write -- in answer to the question “Does God exist?” – that the teleological argument, alone, proves that He does.

My mind dwells on more profound thoughts – not on college football. I hope that yours does also.

Friday, November 04, 2022

CHRISTIAN EVIDENCES (APOLOGETICS): Does God Exist - Moral Argument (published 11-4-2022; article #370; series article #2)

4/7/2017 Photo by Joshua Earle on Unsplash. Free to use under the Unsplash License


Greetings, dear reader! This is the second article on Christian Evidences (in Topic Sections). The first article, on 10/28/2022, introduced the topic series and explained my purpose for writing it.

This article is the first answer – of three answers – to the question: Does God exist? This article affirms the moral argument for the existence of God.

Please note that each of the three answers will prove – independently – that God exists. One line of proof is sufficient. We have three lines of proof.

The three lines of proof are “the light supported by three poles, not just one.” Imagine a street light. One tall and strong pole secures the bright street light, high in the air. Imagine the same street light – supported by three strong poles.

Is your mind engaged? This article builds the first “strong pole.”

What is a Syllogism?

First, the line of reasoning must be described. It is called a “syllogism.” The word is transliterated from the Greek, συλλογισμός. It means logical reasoning or thinking about something in a sensible manner. Growing up, my parents taught me how to think right. In college, I sat at the feet of scholars, who taught me valid and sound reasoning in formal logic. I have studied the topic since college. Sound reasoning should be common sense.

To be rational is to think logically. To be irrational is to think by emotion only. Far too many people are irrational – arguing from emotion only – without thinking reasonably and not using common sense.

The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines and examples syllogism as:

1: a deductive scheme of a formal argument consisting of a major and a minor premise and a conclusion (as in "every virtue is laudable; kindness is a virtue; therefore kindness is laudable").

A deductive argument – as an “if then” (or modus ponens, from Latin “method of affirming”) proposition – is a syllogism. A valid argument is when the conclusion must be true, if the premises are true. A sound argument is when the conclusion is true, because the premises are true.

The Moral Argument

As is stated in the introductory article:

The moral argument: If absolute moral law (morality) exists, then a Divine Lawgiver exists. Absolute moral law (morality) exists. Therefore, a Divine Lawgiver, God, exists.

The argument is valid, but is is sound? Let's set about to prove the argument. First, we must define our terms. Each definition is based on the Merriam-Webster Dictionary.

Absolute: fundamental, ultimate, as in absolute knowledge; Self-sufficient, as in an absolute term in logic.
Moral law: a general rule of right living, especially: such a rule or group of rules conceived as universal and unchanging and as having the sanction of God's will, of conscience, of man's moral nature, or of natural justice as revealed to human reason.
Morality: a doctrine or system of moral conduct.
Divine: being a deity. Deity is essential nature of a god.

Major premise: if absolute moral law (morality) exists, then a Divine Lawgiver exists.

To say, as many do, that “nothing is absolute” is a logical contradiction. “Is it absolutely true that nothing is absolute? If so, how do you know it?” I've asked many people those questions, over the decades. I've watched heads spin in circles. I've never had one person prove it. No one can prove absolutely that nothing is absolute!

Absolute truth exists. It is self-evident. For example, one plus one always (absolutely) equals two. That mathematical truth can never be changed.

If moral law is absolute, then it cannot be changed – by individual or societal choices. A source of moral law (Divine Lawgiver) – which is before (in time) and above (in power) an individual or society – must exist. The “if then” major premise is valid.

Minor premise: absolute moral law (morality) exists.

Does absolute moral law exist? Yes, it does. The following is how anyone should know that moral law is absolute.

Consider first, if God does not exist, then humans are composed of matter only. There is no human soul. Matter (in particular, the complex molecular structure that defines us as human) is all that exists. We are as programmed computers. If so, we have no “system of moral conduct” – no “right” or “wrong” – unless we write the “moral code” into our soulless, “computerized” programming.

Unfortunately, some humans (as soulless, complex computers, if God does not exist) program themselves to accept and promote deceit, theft, arson, vandalism, rape, murder, and a host of other unpleasant and harmful behaviors – as moral and good. Crimes (grave offenses against morality) are rampant. The news media inform us daily. Many who read this article – if not every reader – and I have been victims of various crimes.

Thankfully, humans (as soulless, complex computers, if God does not exist) have formed societies and nations. Most of these societies and nations have decided that it is bad (evil and immoral) to commit the crimes that some humans think are moral and good.

Who is right? If absolute morality does not exist, then, under the theory that “might makes right,” the majority of soulless (if there is no God) humans, in the society or nation, determines their subjective morality and judges the minority of subjectively immoral humans to be evil. The evil ones are punished, based on the subjective laws of the society or nation.

In this scenario, there is no absolute good or right. There is no absolute evil or wrong. Society would determine right and wrong. Society could change its mind. Societies, of course, have and are changing their minds. For example, societies once condemned as wrong the practice of homosexuality. Today, however, many societies have decided that the practice of homosexuality is right – and that anyone who thinks that it is wrong is, himself, wrong.

Consider next, can one nation (or group of nations) judge the moral conduct of another nation (or nations), and if so, how? The classic example comes to mind.

The Nazis were absolutely wrong (committed absolute evil) by murdering six million Jews. The Nazis had decided that to murder the Jews (in the Holocaust) was morally right. The Allies (including the nations of Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States) judged otherwise. World War II resulted in the defeat of the Nazis (and the Empire of Japan). The Allied nations formed The United Nations (UN), after World War II, to prevent another world war.

After World War II and during the Nuremberg Trials, the chief American prosecutor, Robert H. Jackson, an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, argued that a higher law,” above Nazi law, condemned that nation. The Robert H. Jackson Center contains articles and videos of the Nuremberg Trials. (See The International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg, November 1945 - October 1946). In addition, the United States Holocaust Museum contains volumes of information.

One nation (or group of nations) can judge the moral conduct of another nation (or nations), by a “higher law.” The Nuremberg Trials argued that a “higher law” condemned the Nazi atrocities. Did the Allied nations (the majority) decide, subjectively, that the Nazis (the minority) were wrong? Of course not. The “higher law” guided their decision.

What is the “higher law?” Consider, finally, that innately (since birth) in each person is a conscience (which can be corrupted). Innately, we come to know that evil – deceit, theft, arson, vandalism, rape, murder, and a host of other unpleasant and harmful behaviors – is wrong. We come to know that good – honesty, love, sharing, helpfulness, respect, and many other pleasant and positive behaviors – is right.

Humans are not composed of matter only. We are not merely complex computers that evolved, without souls, that developed societies, which developed a subjective moral code. The human conscience (or soul) knows innately right and wrong (unless it chooses to corrupt itself). The minor premise is valid. Absolute moral law (innately, in the human conscience) exists.

Conclusion: therefore, a Divine Lawgiver, God, exists.

Since absolute moral law (morality) exists (innately, in the human conscience), then it must emanate from a higher being, who has existed before (in time) and above (in power) human societies and nations.

That “higher being” – who existed before (in time) and above (in power) human societies and nations – is called God, the Divine Lawgiver. The argument is sound. This article has proved it.

The Atheist's Quibble

The atheist, however, may quibble by asking, “Is absolute morality above God? If so, can absolute morality judge God? Or is God above absolute morality? If so, can God change moral good to moral evil, or visa versa, if he wishes to do so?”

The atheist quibble fails to understand that absolute morality flows from the very essence of God. It emanates from God. It is His nature. God does not change His nature.


Our imaginary street light now has one strong pole to support it. The moral argument, by itself, proves that God exists.

There are two more poles to build – the teleological and cosmological arguments that each, alone, will also prove that God exists. This article, however, is enough “pole building” for today.

Ecclesiastes concludes:

Of making many books there is no end, and much study wearies the body. Now all has been heard; here is the conclusion of the matter: Fear God and keep his commandments, for this is the duty of all mankind. For God will bring every deed into judgment, including every hidden thing, whether it is good or evil. (Ecclesiastes 12:12-14, NIV)

The literal translation of “this is the duty of all mankind” is "this is the whole of mankind" – as in the single purpose of mankind.

The study of this article, dear reader, may have made you weary. Be refreshed! Stretch. Take a relaxing walk outside.

In reverential fear, by grace, follow and serve God. He does not require perfection, only faithfulness. God will reward your duty, on Judgment Day.