Saturday, April 29, 2023

Synchronous Fireflies Show, in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park: You're Kidding, Right? (published 4-29-2023; article #408)

5/24/2019 photograph, by Tony Phan, on Unsplash. Free to use under the Unsplash License.


First, they are called lightning bugs -- not fireflies! Blame Mrs. Appalachian Irishman. She had the TV on early this morning, not me this time.

The flexibility of this “public journal and commentary” website is that I don't restrict myself to one topic or to only a few similar topics. That's why “Topic Sections” has twenty categories. I can add or change categories.

Early next month, the plan, Lord willing, is to publish two very serious articles on family and heritage. The articles will honor the recent sorrow and joy, of 4/26/2023, and the sorrow and joy, of 4/30/2023. The articles are in my mind only at this juncture.

Writing this humorous article about Appalachia will lift my spirit, in the context of the recent sorrow and joy. I hope that it lifts the spirits of family. Well, I hope that it brings laughter, to everyone, who reads it.

Firefly Lottery” - You're Kidding, Right?

Let's divide this section into the lightning bug lottery facts and then add a little “you're kidding” humor. Shall we?

The Lottery

I don't really know why the morning TV news is inspiring recent articles, including this one. This is the third article this month! The other two are the articles of 4/19/2023 and 4/25/2023 (the day before the sorrow and joy, of the next day).

I'd completed the routine early morning stretches -- which I do while still in the bed, to unkink my “bionic” body -- from a night's sleep. Mrs. Appalachian Irishman, like the good and “long-suffering” wife that she is, was making the weekend breakfast (eggs, biscuits, gravy, bacon, and coffee). Having greeted my wife and enlightened her with my usual Irish blarney, I poured my first cup of coffee. As I walked to my home office, the local morning TV news had a segment on the “synchronous firefly lottery.” I kid you not! I had to pause and watch enough to laugh, before continuing to my office.

In case you think that I'm still joking, the online version of the story is: “Park officials announce synchronous firefly lottery, viewing dates,” on WATE TV, Knoxville, TN, by Melanie Vásquez Russell, posted 4/25/2023, updated 4/27/2023. The article begins by stating:

The dates have been announced for the 2023 viewings of the famous synchronous fireflies in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. A limited number of park visitors will have the opportunity to watch the “lightning bugs” in their late-spring flash patterns up in the Smokies.

At least “lightning bugs” is in quotation marks! That's what anyone, born and raised in northeast Tennessee, calls them! Only Yankees say “fireflies!” Fact check: meteorological summer starts on June 1st, so the lightning bug show starts in early summer, not late spring!

According to the article, “the lottery system for synchronous firefly viewings” started in 2006 (the same year that my new ol' truck was manufactured). This year, the “viewings” will be June 4th through 11th, eight evenings. Each evening, 120 vehicles are allowed, totaling 960 in eight evenings. Only seven folks are allowed per vehicle. Apparently, the bureaucrats have all the details lined out.

Any Yankees or southerners, who have no sense, may buy a lottery for a vehicle pass -- but only from April 28 at 10 AM to May 1 at 8 PM. It'll cost you a dollar to play the lightning bug viewing lottery game! Time's a wastin'! Better hurry!

The lucky winners of the lightning bug viewing lottery will be notified, on 5/11/2023. Those lucky winners will get a parking pass and have to fork over another $24.00 for a reservation fee. Ain't they goin' to be lucky!

You're Kidding, Right?

Well, that's the facts, such as they are. My sarcastic Irish wit has verbalized its eloquence, every year that the lightning bug show comes around. This time, my wit is in writing!

Who created this money-making racket? Inquiring minds want to know! How can you, dear reader, avoid that scheme? Let me preach on.

If you live in a rural area, with no street lights, just step outside, on any given evening in June. You will see the synchronous lightning bug show -- without cost! Growing up in the country, we watched many such shows, right in our own yard!

Mrs. Appalachian Irishman and I live in a fairly rural area of northeast Knox County. We have an acre of ground, in a small subdivision. Street lights don't bother the view. We have seen, every year, since 2003, the synchronous lighting bug show -- in our own back yard! It's great! If family and friends come over, then we don't charge them to watch the show! No lottery ticket is required.

If you are a city dweller, then I suggest that you find some country friends, who will invite you to their yard, to watch the lightning bug show! Being country, they won't charge you. I'd suggest that you move out of that city, to a quiet place in the country, of course.

I still wonder who created the money-making racket, in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. I ain't a betting man, but I'd bet a crisp and fairly worthless dollar bill that other locations are doing the same. They're just taking money from folks, who don't have any common sense, y'all!

The Couch Spring

How did I jump to a couch spring? I guess that it's the debate on meteorological spring (June 1st) versus astronomical spring (June 21st). Last evening, my side of the recliner couch popped a spring.

I took the above photograph this morning. You can't see the missing spring, unless you look hard. This is my work in progress. Yes, my bionic right foot and I pounded asphalt and hard tile, in both the Home Depot and Lowe's. I found a potential replacement spring.

I might just ask a neighbor, who has an automobile restoration shop, to let me use his fancy tools, to make a new hook out of the damaged spring. All it needs is an improvised hook!

Don't worry! I won't spring another couch story on you! Rest assured that, in educated country boy fashion, I'll fix it.


My adoptive sister and I had another good long phone conversation this afternoon. Sis, my wife and I will be there in spirit, on Monday! We plan that visit in June!

Remember, y'all, they are called lightning bugs -- not fireflies!

Tuesday, April 25, 2023

What a Man Hears, while Making His Coffee: EPA Rule, PFAS, and Water Bill Increase (published 4-25-2023; article #407)

Image title “PFOA, also known as C8, has 8 carbons.” From “Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)” on National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, last reviewed 3/9/2023. “This content is available to use on your website.”


What did this Appalachian Irishman hear, while making his morning coffee? This brief article has to share the funny story! It's the 102nd article on humor.

In the early morning dawn today, after Mrs. Appalachian Irishman had just departed for work, I had the TV on the local news. I was in the kitchen, making coffee. I thought that I'd heard the newscaster say, “the EPA's regulation of pee pads could increase water bills.”

Nothing is wrong with my hearing. In fact, at my annual physical, two years ago, the nurse was surprised that I could hear above the normal human level. The sound of the coffee brewing must have caused my misunderstanding. I had to fact check what I thought that I'd heard!

What I Learned

So, what was the actual news segment? The website article for the TV segment that I heard is: “Some local utilities warn proposed EPA rule could raise rates for water,” WBIR-TV, Knoxville TN, by Vinay Simlot, 4/24/2023.

Apparently, the newscaster had said, “the EPA's regulation of PFAS could increase water bills.” I stood corrected. I stuck a finger in each ear, to check for earwax. The news article begins by stating:

A proposed rule by the Environmental Protection Agency could raise rates for drinking water, some local utilities warn.

Our water bill -- as is everything, in the “Biden economy” -- is higher and high enough. My investigative desire dug deeper into the well of online research. The “proposed rule” link is to “Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS): Proposed PFAS National Primary Drinking Water Regulation,” on United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), updated 4/7/2023.

That rather complex source -- rich in acronyms, PDF download links, and “policy-wonk psychobabble” -- states, in part (with my emboldened red font added for emphasis):

On March 14, 2023, EPA announced the proposed National Primary Drinking Water Regulation (NPDWR) for six PFAS . . . . EPA anticipates finalizing the regulation by the end of 2023. EPA expects that if fully implemented, the rule will prevent thousands of deaths and reduce tens of thousands of serious PFAS-attributable illnesses.

To learn more about PFAS and to find important background information to support understanding the details of specific actions EPA takes to address PFAS and other emerging events related to PFAS visit:

So, what are polyfluoroalkyl substances, known as PFAS? Why are they dangerous? The website,, includes a link to “Our [EPA's] current understanding of the human health and environmental risks PFAS.” I selected the following quotes from that link (with my emboldened red font added for emphasis).

PFAS are a group of manufactured chemicals that have been used in industry and consumer products since the 1940s because of their useful properties.

. . . surveys conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that most people in the United States have been exposed to some PFAS. Most known exposures are relatively low . . . .

Current peer-reviewed scientific studies have shown that exposure to certain levels of PFAS may lead to: Reproductive effects such as decreased fertility or increased high blood pressure in pregnant women. Developmental effects or delays in children, including low birth weight, accelerated puberty, bone variations, or behavioral changes. Increased risk of some cancers, including prostate, kidney, and testicular cancers. Reduced ability of the body’s immune system to fight infections, including reduced vaccine response. Interference with the body’s natural hormones. Increased cholesterol levels and/or risk of obesity.

. . . health effects associated with exposure to PFAS are difficult to specify for many reasons . . . .

Of course, that link includes a mind-numbing amount of additional information and links to other sources. I clicked and read enough, to see the bureaucratic spiderweb forming around my computer monitor. I cleared the spiderweb.

My Reaction

Initially, I said to no one, aside from God hearing me, “Well, I wonder when and how much our water bill will increase.” Since God is all-knowing, He heard me. (See Jesus' warning, in Matthew 12:36-27.)

The water utility district that provides our water filters river water. It's as good as “city water” can get. We filter our drinking water, from the tap. If our water has any PFAS in it, then it is not bothering us.

On Your Voice in Federal Decision Making, I found: “You are commenting on a Proposed Rule by the Environmental Protection Agency: Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances National Primary Drinking Water Regulation.” I entered the following comment:

This morning, a local TV news station had a segment on this proposed rule. I read through enough material, until I found this comment section. Of course, the website information about this proposed rule includes a plethora of bureaucracy and mind-numbing details that are amazing! I know how to read and sort it all out, even if it takes time. I hope that our monthly water bill does not increase. It's high enough already. We should have had a water well drilled, during the construction phase of our house. I hope that every government official, who is involved, uses enough educated common sense, to do right by we the people. You serve us, after all. Serve us properly, please!

Mine appears to have been the sixty-seventh comment. As of this entry, I don't see that my comment has been published yet. It is, however, published in this article!


I may need to stop turning on the local TV news, in the morning, while making coffee! This is not the first time, this month, that the news inspired an article. (See the funny 4/19/2023 article!)

Please enjoy, after skipping the advertisements, the song, “Dig A Little Deeper In The Well,” by the Oak Ridge Boys, on The Oak Ridge Boys official OAKSTV channel!

Papaw Marion Ferrell (4/13/1880 - 11/21/1970) started Ferrell's Well Drilling, in 1901. Dad (Earl Ferrell, 9/17/1927 - 1/25/2008) continued the business, in 1953, until he retired, in 1999. Dad drilled water wells for 46 years in and around Hawkins County.

I wish that Mrs. Appalachian Irishman and I had decided to have a water well drilled, in 2003, while our house was under construction. At least the EPA isn't trying to regulate pee pads -- yet!

Friday, April 21, 2023

Norris Dam State Park: Hike #22 on 4-19-2023 (published 4-21-2023; article #406)


Greetings, dear reader! Yesterday, in warm and sunny weather, I only ate dinner (or lunch, as the Yankees call it) at Zaxby's and bought seven items at Lowe's. The chicken sandwich, fries, and small drink cost $8.73, including tax. The Lowe's pre-tax total was four florescent bulbs ($43.92), two “micro” air filters ($22.97), one “maximum” air filter ($22.97), and “assorted O rings” ($3.36). Well, you can figure the cost, adding 9.25% sales tax. “A dollar ain't worth much these days.”

At least one of the O rings fit my ol' canteen! The cap had needed a new seal. (My “bionic” right foot “enjoyed” pounding around that big box store, on concrete and tile, but it got over it.) The O rings purchase leads into this fiftieth article on the topic of hiking.

On Wednesday, a warm, sunny, and windy day, my 2006 Frontier and I visited Norris Dam State Park! The article of 3/31/2023 (about House Mountain Hike #179, on 3-29-2023) included the section “Hiking Records: Grand Total of All Hikes, Since 4/23/2000.” I'd mentioned twenty-one hikes, so far, at Norris. Wednesday was hike twenty-two, so far, at that state park. It also marked 232 total hikes, in various locations, since 4/23/2000, when my hiking record started.

I know. I am sandwiching in another article, before publishing the seventh article in the Christian Evidences series. I haven't lost interest in that series! The draft is mostly complete. Let's first hike Norris, shall we? Let's hike!

Norris Hike #22, on 4/19/2023

Norris Dam State Park has about fifteen trails that cover about twenty-one miles. I've hiked most, if not all, of them several times. Searching this website, by “Norris,” finds several previous articles with photographs. The one-way drive takes about thirty minutes. That's why I don't hike there as often. House Mountain is only seven or ten miles from the house, depending on the route.

Wednesday, at Norris, I decided to hike the short and “civilized” loop trail that leads up from, behind, and back down to the observation parking lot. It took more time to drive to the park than to hike the trail. The trail starts up, as a rough service road, to the water tower. Poison oak was all along the trail. I paused at the water tower, briefly, to supply the ground with some moisture and to read some of the mildly interesting graffiti. I continued, as the service road became a trail, to the top of the hill.

I paused, near the top, to view the scene below and to the east. The following is the first frame of my video, which I started at 1:43 PM. The sun is behind me. The temperature was in the low 80's Fahrenheit. I sweated enough.

I had the moment in time to myself. Two or three vehicles were in the parking lot, below me. The lake was calm, with no boats visible on the water. The wind, however, was coming from the west, behind me, at a good clip. Enjoy the view!

Norris Podcast

The eighth episode of Appalachian Irishman - Podcasts, on YouTube, is “Norris Dam State Park: Hike 22 on 4-19-2023 (published 4-21-2023; episode 8).” The strong wind muffled some of my audio, when I panned the view, with my “semi-intelligent” phone. I panned a little too quickly, at one point. I hope that you don't get dizzy watching that part!

As I'd said in the audio, being there “was better than working for a living.” I was “working,” by enjoying a hike, in my retirement!” Enjoy the video!


Even a short time in the woods is better than not being there. Getting out into the woods, even on a “civilized” and short hike, is relaxing. The views are great. A man has time alone, with the Good Lord.

That's about all. This is the Appalachian Irishman, signing off.

Wednesday, April 19, 2023

“Best Apps to Save Money for Kids” (published 4-19-2023; article #405)

5/28/2021 photo, by Braňo on Unsplash. Free to use under the Unsplash License.


Howdy, y'all! Coined between the serious article of yesterday and the forthcoming seventh article in the Christian Evidences series, I have to write another funny little article!

This is the one hundred and first article on or including humor. (See the Humor topic section.) This Appalachian Irishman has to have a little fun!

Inspiration” for the Article

In the predawn this morning, after Mrs. Appalachian Irishman left for work, I had the TV on a local morning news station. (I glance and listen, with partial interest, while making my morning coffee.) I happened to catch a segment, titled “Best Apps to Save Money for Kids.” The newscaster seemed to enjoy “educating” any parents, who may have been watching.

Apparently, parents need to get “apps” for their young'uns, to help them figure out how to save and spend money. The assumption is that parents know how to manage money. These “apps” (software applications) even give little Johnny or little Sarah a debit card!

Of course, I was amazed! I laughed out loud and exclaimed to the unhearing TV, “What? Haven't y'all heard about piggy banks?” I had to write a funny article!

Search by “Best Apps to Save Money for Kids”

I assume that the local news station did an online search by the segment title, to find what they needed, to produce the segment. Using Norton Safe Search, I searched by “best apps to save money for kids.” I had to do it – just for some retirement fun!

Ignoring the seven advertisements that appeared first, the following are the top four websites that the search found, by listing order. This article -- in no manner whatsoever -- endorses any of the four websites. I didn't even bother to read the articles! I was just having some online fun.

The first to appear was “10 Best Money Apps For Kids and Parents,” on Esavings Blog, by Kari Cullen, 12/6/2017. By digging under “Contact,” I found “About Esavingsblog/Work With Me.” Apparently, Kari Cullen owns the website. She claims to be “a Ramsey Solutions Master Certified Financial Coach.” Interestingly, this article, over five years old, appeared first.

Next up was “Best Money Apps for Kids,” on Educational App Store (no author or date listed). The “About Us,” at the bottom left of the page, provides details about what the website does. Who owns the website? Your guess is as good as mine! Ownership is not listed.

Third up was “The 5 Best Allowance and Budgeting Apps for Kids,” on Parents, by Mia Taylor, updated 2/23/2022. This website is certainly more professional. The “About Us” section includes “Our Team” and “Contact Us.” It's easy enough to figure out who these folks are and what they do.

Last up was “17 Best Money Apps for Kids [Banking, Stock Investing + More],” on Young and the Invested, by Riley Adams, CPA, last modified 4/6/2023. The “About” section states clearly that Riley Adams, CPA, is the founder of Young and the Invested, and he provides information about himself and the purpose of his website.


What's wrong with all this? It's way too complicated! Why pick from up to seventeen different applications? Why write articles on the best applications? The simple is made complex.

Do parents know how to manage the household budget? I hope so. If they do, then why don't parents just give their young'uns a piggy bank and explain to them how to save and spend money? What comes in must always be more than what goes out! Young'uns need to see coins and paper money! They don't need debit cards!

As a “poly-tics” aside, maybe someone should write a software application for the federal “guvrmint,” called “The Best App to Save Money for the Government!” (See Debt to the Penny, on Fiscal Data, by the Department of the Treasury. As of yesterday, total national debt outstanding was $31,456,445,296,319.41 -- or $31.4 trillion and change).

I still have the little red piggy bank, which Mom and Dad gave me, when I was a child. It's in a wooden trunk. (I wish that I'd taken a photograph of it.) As a child, I learned how to make and spend money, by using that piggy bank. Mom and Dad couldn't afford to give me an allowance. I started earning money, by mowing the yard of a elderly neighbor, who lived a few miles away. A bicycle ride got me there and back. I earned five dollars, each time that I push mowed about an acre of yard.

Give those young'uns a piggy bank – not an “app!” What say you?

Tuesday, April 18, 2023

Debunking Binitarian Doctrine: the Trinity is True (published 4-18-2023; article #404)

Trinity symbol from “What is Binitarianism?” On Got Questions, last updated 1/13/2023. Free to use, under Got Questions' Copyright Policy. Note: the use of the symbol does not imply that this author accepts every point in Got Questions' Statement of Faith -- especially on eternal security, the “rapture,” and millennialism. (I just like the symbol, y'all!)


The article of 4/14/2023 mentions the wrong path that I'd taken, during my hike the day before. Papaw Ferrell would have laughed! That article, with embedded podcast, explains my “hiking theology,” on taking the right path up.

I didn't know, a day later, that I would take an online sidetrack. Well, I did. On Saturday, I came across Medium, a platform to read and publish articles. I decided to experiment. So, I created M. Fearghail, on Medium. I re-published my 4/14/2023 article there that day. Depending on various factors, I may delete that account or continue to re-publish articles there. (I already republish some articles on my Substack website.) Mainly, I am looking for other authors, who write on topics of interest to me.

That wasn't really the online sidetrack. My sidetrack, while searching for other authors, who write on religious topics, happened to find an anonymous writer, whose 3/24/2023 article raised my righteous and indignant Irish dander!

This thirty-eighth article on Logic - Theology - Deep Stuff will debunk the doctrine of Binitarianism and prove that the doctrine of the Trinity is true. (This is also my 404th article.) I hope that you, dear reader, find this little sidetrack both interesting and helpful – in your spiritual hike on the right path up.

The Binitarian Doctrine - Debunked

The 3/24/2023 article, which raised my indignant dander, is: "Debunking the TRINITY doctrine," on Forbidden Doctrines, by anonymous author, 3/24/2023. This is his second article. The “About” section of his website does not introduce the author by name. The website's stated purpose is “to expose the many lies and false teachings of the Church.” The stated goal for his readers is “to search their Bibles to see what is true.” The website is titled correctly, since it promotes forbidden and unscriptural doctrines, as the correct study of the Bible indicates. (See 2 Timothy 2:15.)

(As a brief aside, I will not become the eighth person to “follow” this anonymous author, who has published four articles, as of this entry. By quick glance, his first article (10/10/2022) seems to be biblical. However, his third article (4/6/2023) denies free will, which is unbiblical, obviously. His most recent article (4/14/2023) affirms the unbiblical notion that Adam and Eve were created, by a perfect and sinless God, as sinners, before they sinned.)

This article focuses only on the anonymous author's second article -- in which the false doctrine of Binitarianism is alleged. Interestingly, the article was written in critique of an article -- published over seventeen years ago -- which is: "What Is the Doctrine of the Trinity?" On Desiring God, by guest contributor Matt Perman, 1/23/2006. Amazingly, the author concludes his remarks, by stating that the 1/23/2006 article “. . . accurately explains the TRINITY doctrine.”

The author's Binitarian doctrine falsely affirms two -- God the Father and God the Son -- not three divine beings, who compose the one divine nature (or Godhead). The author thinks that the Holy Spirit is an “it” -- the spirit of both the Father and the Son -- not a separate, or third, divine person (as in the Trinity). The author states, “. . . the Word of God teaches . . . that the Holy Spirit IS the Spirit of both Jesus Christ AND His Father.”

Binitarianism falsely rejects the full deity and personhood of the Holy Spirit. I will cite the author's three Binitarian arguments and then debunk each one.

First Binitarian Argument Debunked

Argument: first, by misusing Matthew 1:20, the author claims that, if the doctrine of the Trinity is correct, then the Holy Spirit is the Father of Jesus. The verse, which the author mishandles, is the angel of the Lord's statement to Joseph, regarding Mary's conception, which states, in part, “. . . what is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit” (Mt. 1:20, NIV). The author's erroneous conclusion is: “. . . if the Holy Spirit conceived Jesus Christ, then the Holy Spirit is his father. That would be the logical conclusion if the TRINITY were true.”

Debunked: the author is guilty of eisegesis (reading his ideas into the verse) and of taking the verse out of context. His leap of logic is a non sequitur (from Latin, “it doesn’t follow”). Please read and consider the full context, in Matthew 1:18-25; Luke 1:26-38; 2:1-7; and John 1:1-3,14,18. The correct exegesis (understanding) of the complete context is as follows.

God (the Father) sent the angel Gabriel, to the virgin Mary, who was betrothed to Joseph. Gabriel said to Mary, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Highest will overshadow you; therefore, also, that Holy One who is to be born will be called the Son of God” (Luke 1:35, NKJV). The verse confirms the Trinity -- the Holy Spirit (or power of the Highest”), the Holy One (or the Son of God), and, by necessary inference, God the Father.

The apostle John's inspired eloquence states:

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made. (John 1:1-3, NKJV)

And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth. (John 1:14, NKJV)

Obviously, God, the eternal Word, who “became flesh,” is “the only begotten of the Father” -- not the only begotten of the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit was the means by which God the eternal Word became flesh, as the Son of God -- born of the virgin Mary, by immaculate conception. The full context confirms the Trinity.

Second Binitarian Argument Debunked

Argument: building on his first and debunked claim, the author's faulty reasoning continues to 2 John 1:3 (not to 1 John 1:3, which is an apparent typographical error, in the article). The author cites the World English Bible translation:

Grace, mercy, and peace will be with us, from God the Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father, in truth and love. (2 John 1:3, WEB)

The author attempts to build his second argument upon his first and concludes: “The Holy Spirit conceived Jesus, but Jesus is the Son of God the Father. The only logical explanation is the Holy Spirit is not some third distinct person.”

Debunked: the author's first claim has already been debunked; therefore, his second argument, built on that debunked argument, is also debunked. Obviously, scripture teaches that God, the eternal Word, became the incarnate Son of God, by the immaculate conception of Mary. Again, the immaculate conception was by means of God the Holy Spirit.

Third Binitarian Argument Debunked

Argument: finally, as well as I can understand the faulty logic of the author, he reasons, somehow, that John 14:26 and 1 John 2:1 prove that the “Counselor” (Greek, παράκλητος, translated Counselor, Helper, or Advocate) is Jesus, or the spirit of Christ -- not the Holy Spirit.

Debunked: the writer is correct, only in that παράκλητος is found five times in the Greek New Testament, each in the apostle John's inspired writings. See the Gospel of John (14:16,26; 15:26; 16:7) and the First Epistle of John (1 John 2:1).

The full context, in the Gospel of John, is the last supper, before Jesus' arrest (John chapters 13 - 17). The four times that παράκλητος is used, in that context, clearly indicate the Holy Spirit. The context also affirms the Trinity. In John 14:16,26, Jesus comforts His disciples by telling them that He will ask the Father to give them another Advocate, the Spirit of truth or the Holy Spirit. In John 15:26 and 16:7, Jesus continues to assure His disciples that He will send to them the Advocate, or the Spirit of truth, from the Father, after He has returned to the Father.

In his First Epistle, John wrote, “. . . we have an advocate with the Father -- Jesus Christ, the Righteous One.” (1 John 2:1, NIV). Here, John uses παράκλητος to indicate Jesus.

As has been said often, “a text taken out of context is a pretext.” The inspired apostle John uses παράκλητος to identify the Holy Spirit (in his Gospel) and also Christ (in his Epistle) – as separate divine persons – not as the same divine person. Otherwise, Jesus returned to the Father, to send Himself back, as the Holy Spirit.

The Johannine use of παράκλητος is a title, attributed to God the Holy Spirit (in his Gospel) and to the Son of God (in his Epistle). A title, in this sense, describes the function – of two divine persons – and does not imply only one divine being. For example, my wife and I have a niece, who is an advocate (or lawyer). We, however, know other advocates. If we call our niece “the advocate,” we do not imply that she is the only advocate.

In his same First Epistle, John also states:

And this is his [God's] command: to believe in the name of his Son, Jesus Christ, and to love one another as he commanded us. The one who keeps God’s commands lives in him, and he in them. And this is how we know that he lives in us: We know it by the Spirit he gave us. (1 John 3:23-24, NIV)

This is how we know that we live in him [God] and he in us: He has given us of his Spirit. And we have seen and testify that the Father has sent his Son to be the Savior of the world. (1 John 4:13-14, NIV)

As in his Gospel, the apostle John also affirms the Trinity, in his First Epistle. God (the Father) commands us to believe in His Son, Jesus. By keeping God's commands, we live in God, and God lives in us. We know this by the Spirit of God that God has given us. (This is “the gift of the Holy Spirit,” which the apostle Peter mentions, in Acts 2:38.)

The author has “taken texts out of context and made a pretext.” This article intends no malice toward the anonymous author. My purpose is to enlighten him, in his error, to guide him on the correct path.

For further study on the error of Binitarianism, I suggest: “Binitarianism: Is It Biblical? How erasing the Holy Spirit also denies the true nature of the Father and the Son,” on Answers in Genesis, by Simon Turpin, 10/29/2022.

God in Three Persons – the Trinity

The previous section, which debunked the Binitarian doctrine, has also affirmed the Trinity. On Saturday, 4/15/2023, I commented on the anonymous author's 3/24/2023 article. He replied. I replied to his response. He then left his reply.

The draft of the still unpublished seventh article, in my Christian Evidences series, includes a section, “Important Note on the Trinity.” On Saturday, in my first comment, to the author's article, I included that section on the Trinity. It is as follows.

At this juncture, an important note on the Trinity is necessary. The Trinity is God the Father, God the Word (who became God the Son), and God the Holy Spirit. Three distinct and divine beings, united perfectly, are one divine nature -- God. This is also called the Godhead.

Genesis 1:1 (NIV) states, In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” In Hebrew, “God” is plural (Elohim, אֱלֹהִ֑ים) but “created” (bā·rā, רָ֣א) is singular. The next verse (NIV) states that “the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters.” Verse 26 (NIV) states, Then God said, 'Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness . . . .'” The plural forms are used.

John 1:1-3 (NIV) states, “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made.” Then verse 14 (NIV) states, “The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth.”

In Genesis 1:1,2,26 and John 1:1-3,14, the Bible states that God the Father created, through God the Word (who became God the Son), by means of God the Holy Spirit. The triune action of the Godhead created all that exists. God the Word became God the Son, to redeem us, by His grace and truth.

The Trinity was present at Jesus' immersion, when God the Father spoke and God the Holy Spirit appeared in the form of a dove. See Matthew 3:13-17; Mark 1:9-11; Luke 3:21-22; and John 1:31-34.

After His resurrection and before His ascension, Jesus gave the Great Commission.

All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age. (Matthew 28:18-20, NIV)

Christians continue to answer the call of the Great Commission, by immersing penitent believers in the name of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit.

The concept of the Trinity -- three distinct and divine beings, united perfectly, in one divine nature, God -- is profound but not a mystery. Consider that millions of distinct and human beings are one human nature. We are united in one human nature. We, however and unfortunately, are not united perfectly in character, will, or purpose – as God is.

That excerpt from my still unpublished article proves the Trinity. The following other scriptures also verify the Trinity. For example, in the context of the sin of Ananias and Sapphira, the apostle Peter affirms that the Holy Spirit is God.

Then Peter said, “Ananias, how is it that Satan has so filled your heart that you have lied to the Holy Spirit and have kept for yourself some of the money you received for the land? Didn't it belong to you before it was sold? And after it was sold, wasn’t the money at your disposal? What made you think of doing such a thing? You have not lied just to human beings but to God.” (Acts 5:3-4, NIV)

They lied to the Holy Spirit, whom the inspired Peter calls God. Even though the word “Trinity” is not found in the Bible, the doctrine of the Trinity is biblical. Consider also the following texts.

Jesus' Great Commission states, in part:

Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit . . . . (Matt. 28:19, NIV)

(Note: I am aware that some claim that the verse is an uninspired addition, to the Gospel of Matthew. I also know that the art and science of textual criticism has confirmed that the text is the original words of the inspired Matthew. The fact can be unpacked and verified, in a future article, as needed.)

The apostle Paul concludes his second letter to the Corinthians, as follows.

May the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all. (2 Cor. 13:14, NIV)

The apostle Paul's encouragement to the Christians at Ephesus, to live worthy and united in their calling states, in part:

There is one body and one Spirit, just as you were called to one hope when you were called; one Lord, one faith, one baptism; one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all. But to each one of us grace has been given as Christ apportioned it. (Eph. 4:4-7, NIV)

One God, in three persons – one God and Father, one Lord (Christ), and one Spirit – is the apostle Paul's inspired truth.

The apostle Peter greets the Christians of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, by stating that they:

. . . have been chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through the sanctifying work of the Spirit, to be obedient to Jesus Christ and sprinkled with his blood . . . (1 Peter 1:2, NIV)

Clearly, each divine person, in the Trinity, is present in salvation, by the foreknowledge of God the Father, the sanctifying of the Spirit, and obedience to Jesus Christ.

See also, among other texts, 1 Corinthians 12:4-6, 2 Corinthians 1:21-22, and Jude 1:20-21.

For further study on the Trinity, I suggest: “The Biblical Doctrine of the Godhead,” on the Christian Courier, by Wayne Jackson, undated.


At least this sidetrack was not like the one that I'd taken, during my hike on Papaw Ferrell's birthday! The anonymous author of the 3/24/2023 article, which this article has debunked, is welcome to continue our discussion, by his comments on this article. After publishing this article, I plan, in the Lord, to reference this article, as my final comment, to his article.

Binitarianism is clearly a false doctrine. The author's error is by not correctly handling (dividing or understanding) the true words of the Bible. (See the apostle Paul's guidance to Timothy, in 2 Timothy 2:15.) Instead, his eisegesis (reading his ideas into certain texts, which he takes out of context) twists and distorts the Bible. (See the apostle Peter's warning, in 2 Peter 3:16.)

I hope that this article guides the author back to the right trail up. I also hope that this article helps keep you, dear reader, from doing down the wrong Binitarian trail. “Dear God, in Christ's name, with the help of the Holy Spirit, I pray that this article will guide every reader along the right path up.”