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Greetings, once again, dear reader! We
are settling comfortably into this series. This is the fourth article
on Christian Evidences. The first
article, on 10/28/2022, introduced the topic and listed the
four questions that this series will answer.
The first question is “Does
article, on 11/4/2022, proved that God exists, by the moral
argument. The third
article, on 11/16/2022, proved the existence of God, by the
This article is the third and final
answer to the question: Does God exist? It will affirm the
cosmological argument for the existence of God. Each of the
three answers proves – independently – that God exists.
One proof is sufficient. We have three proofs.
Are you ready to build “the third
and final pole” that supports the “bright street light?”
Let's get the building project started!
I have joked for decades that ladies
use cosmetics to turn chaos into cosmos! My apologies to the
ladies, who are reading. I will explain.
The Greek word κόσμος (kosmos) is
the root to “cosmetics” and “cosmology.” “Cosmos” is the
transliteration. The word refers to that which is ordered, such as an
ordered system (e.g., the universe, the world, etc.). A lady “orders”
her face by applying cosmetics. That's how “cosmetics turn chaos
into cosmos.” Don't worry ladies. Men's faces usually stay in a
state of chaos!
The cosmological argument may appear to
be like the teleological argument, which the third
article has already proved. Cosmology, however, refers
to the study of the origin and structure of the universe.
“Cosmological” is used in that sense. The
cosmological argument is also called “the argument from origin”
or “the argument from cause and effect.”
As the first
The cosmological argument: If the universe is not eternal,
then an Eternal First Cause has always existed. The universe is not
eternal. Therefore, an Eternal First Cause, God, has always exited. A
simpler form is: If something exists, then something or Someone has
always existed. Something (i.e., the cosmos and all that is in it,
including the earth, you, and me) exists. Therefore, something or
Someone, God, has always existed.
Definitions for the argument are
which is called, with respect, “Mr. Webster.” Note
that clarification on the use of “eternal” and “eternity”
will be stated.
– Eternal (adjective): of or relating to eternity. Eternity (noun): the quality or state of being eternal.
** Notice that Mr. Webster has “defined himself in a circle!” He states that eternal is eternity and that eternity is being eternal. The use of “eternal” and “eternity,” in this argument, means, specifically, “that which has always existed, had no beginning, and will have no end.” The importance of the clarification will present itself, under The Atheist's Further Quibbles, just before the Conclusion. **
– First (adjective): preceding all others in time, order, or importance.
** Note that the use of “first,” specifically, means “preceding (being before) all else in time, which also includes order or importance.” **
– Cause (noun): something that brings about an effect or a result.
– Matter (noun): material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy.
if the universe is not eternal, then an Eternal First Cause
has always existed.
The Latin phrase ex nihilo, nihil
fit means from nothing, nothing comes. “Nothing”
means, obviously, that which does not exist – a vacuum, a void, a
null, zero, emptiness, complete nonexistence. If ever there were
nothing at all, then nothing would exist now.
We understand this innately.
It is a self-evident
truth. Nothing (that which does not exist) cannot create something.
To say that nothing can create something is a logical contradiction.
A thought or an idea forms in the mind and soul. It doesn't “just
pop into one's head,” from nothing.
I have often asked atheists to believe
me when I state, “I was walking down the street and, all of a
sudden, I saw a brand new car appear – from thin air, out of
nothing!” They don't believe me, of course, but they
usually understand where I am going, in my effort to enlighten them!
Obviously, something exists now
(e.g., the universe, the earth, the keyboard on which I am typing,
you, me, and so forth). Logically, therefore, something or Someone
(the Eternal First Cause) has always existed.
What or Who is the eternality (that has always
existed) that caused (as first cause) that which exists?
The major premise is valid.
Next, the fact that the
universe is not eternal will be established.
the universe is not eternal.
The atheist must
know and prove that matter (i.e., the tangible, the universe and
everything that is in it), not mind (i.e., the intangible), is
eternal. Matter must
have always existed – if
God, the Eternal Mind, has not always
Has matter, the
tangible universe (in some shape or form), always existed? No, it has
not, as the Second Law of Thermodynamics will prove. Matter is
finite, not infinite.
After establishing that the universe it not eternal, the refutation
of two standard atheist rebuttals will be mentioned. Also, brief
comments will be made on the Big Bang theory and on macro-evolution.
Law of Thermodynamics – Proof that Matter is not Eternal
includes certain scientific details. The reference sources contain
further details that are not included in this article. Please do not
allow the details to overwhelm or distract your focus! The basic
point is simple, as will be explained.
First, we must
understand and distinguish an “open system,” a “closed system,”
and an “isolated system.” In an open system, energy and
matter can enter and leave (e.g., an open frying pan, containing
meat, vegetables, and water, on a heated stove eye). In a closed
system, matter cannot enter or leave, but energy can enter or
leave (e.g., a pot, with a lid on it, containing vegetables and
water, on a heated stove eye). In an isolated system, neither
matter nor energy can enter or leave. A thermos or cooler is an
approximate example; however, isolated systems exist only in theory.
(Of several sources, see LibreTexts,
Definitions, by Emily V. Eames, updated 8/13/2020.)
The Second Law
of Thermodynamics is one of the four Laws of Thermodynamics.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics that studies energy transfer,
as heat and work, in matter. (Source: Britannica,
Second Law of Thermodynamics states
that the universe contains a finite amount of usable energy that
deteriorates, becomes disordered) over time. This degradation is
called entropy. Entropy,
the degradation, running down, unwinding, and trend to
disorder of a system, such as the universe. (Sources: the two
Britannica references, cited above. Also, among several other
sources, see Khan
laws of thermodynamics –
which is based on The
laws of thermodynamics, by
OpenStax, part of Rice
entropy. Physically, we are born. We grow. If we live long
enough, we begin to age and to “run down.” Eventually, we die
physically. As another example, I have a 2006 Nissan Frontier truck.
If I don't maintain and care for my truck, then he will “run down”
faster. Now, I love my ol' truck! My truck, however, is slowly
winding down. I am too. So are you. As a final example, every
morning, I must bathe myself to order the disorder from a night's
sleep. Eventually, I will “run down” to the point that I
won't be able to do so. Someone else may have to bathe me. In time, I
will die physically and won't need to be bathed. We can restore
order, temporarily, in the relentless trend to disorder (entropy).
Entropy, however, wins in the end. The fact is established by
science and understood in life practically.
The Second Law
of Thermodynamics – an established law of science that we
understand practically – confirms that matter,
the tangible universe, is “winding down.” It is finite.
Matter will “wind down” completely at, what is called
scientifically, maximum entropy, thermal equilibrium, or “heat
death.” Since matter is finite, then it had to have been started
(as in winding a watch) – by an infinite
something or Someone.
The basic point is simple. Matter, the tangible universe is not
eternal. It is finite. It is winding down. It had a beginning. The
minor premise is valid.
The following sidetracks are on the refutation of two standard
atheist rebuttals, brief comments on the Big Bang theory, and brief
comments on macro-evolution. The conclusion will follow these
Refutation of Two Standard Atheist Replies
The atheist -- in
his blind, atheistic faith -- may fight against the scientifically
established fact that the universe is not eternal. The following are
not two “straw men” that are built (which is a fallacy in
logic). They are known counter statements by atheists, which I have
heard personally. The refutation
of two standard atheist replies, to the scientific fact that the
universe is not eternal, are given, to assist readers, who may
encounter the quibbles.
wait!” – the atheist may state first – “what
about the First Law of Thermodynamics, which states that matter
cannot be created or destroyed? Matter must be eternal, if it can't
be created or destroyed.”
Yes, as the
citations above confirm, the
First Law of Thermodynamics states that – in a closed
system – matter (i.e., tangible mass and energy) cannot be created
Matter, however, is
not eternal. It is finite, as the Second Law of Thermodynamics
establishes. Further, “matter” (nothingness) could not create
(spontaneously generate) matter (tangible mass and energy). That
would violate the First Law of Thermodynamics, in
system, and the self-evident truth that “from nothing,
universe (i.e., all the tangible mass and energy that exists
physically), therefore, has to be an open
system – whereby a non-physical and eternal force (not mass,
matter, or energy) – that exists before and above the universe –
created the physical universe.
(For further study, see God
and the Laws of Thermodynamics: A Mechanical Engineer’s
Perspective, on Apologetics
Press, by Jeff Miller, PhD, published 4/1/2007.)
The atheist's first “but
wait!” does him no
– the atheist may continue – “the Big Bang proves that the
universe and all life in it evolved. Thus, there is no God.”
fact that the universe is not eternal, could not have created itself,
and had to have been created by an eternal, non-physical, first cause
has already been established. The atheist must admit this
truth. The Big Bang theory does not help him. The atheist's second
“but wait!” falls by the wayside in defeat.
Brief Comment on the Big Bang Theory
The following summarizes the Big Bang theory (or theories), with
references, if any reader would like to study the topic further
not allow conversations with atheists or independent study of the Big
Bang theory (or theories) to intimidate you! The theory is a big bust
(or failure). See the Institute
for Creation Research
Big Bust, by Henry M. Morris,
PhD, 5/1/1994. The
article is timeless truth, despite having been written almost three
is the Big Bang theory (or theories)? The
Big Bang is an astronomical theory that
was postulated about a hundred years ago, has undergone several
revisions, continues to be revised, and has several versions.
(Various versions of the Big Bang theory continue to evolve.) A
version of the theory
speculates that the
violently, about 13.8 billion years ago, by
the explosion of a very
small, very hot, and very dense “singularity.”
The theory states that, over billions of years, the initial “bang”
expanded, changed, and evolved, to form the universe, the Milky Way
galaxy, our solar system, the earth, you, and me. The theory is used
to support the theory of macro-evolution (or the molecules to man
grade school and high school science teachers had to teach me this
version of the Big Bang theory – even if they didn't believe it. Of
the many sources that explain the theory and revisions, the ThoughtCo
article – Understanding
the Big-Bang Theory: The theory behind the origin of the universe,
Zimmerman Jones (MS Mathematics Education, BA Physics), updated
6/11/2019 – is good enough. The article points out the history of
the Big Bang theory, revisions to the theory, alleged evidence for
it, problems with it, and questions that the theory cannot answer.
By the way, the predominate version of
the Big Bang theory alleges that the universe is 13.8 billions years
old. The alleged age of the universe had been calculated more widely.
For example, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
article – Then
vs. Now: The Age of the Universe, published in May 2006 –
states: “Before 1999, astronomers had estimated that the age of
the universe was between 7 and 20 billion years.”
The article – which assumes that the Big Bang is true, with no
solid evidence – explains how the various alleged ages of the
universe have been redetermined during this century.
is significant to note that the predominate Big Bang theory begins
with the assumption that an undefined “singularity” already
existed. The theory is that an unknown
“singularity” exploded, which started time and space. (The “clock
wound up and started ticking.”)
Big Bang theorists speculate that they
can calculate the evolution of the universe, starting at 10-43
seconds after the Big Bang. Of various sources, two are cited.
See EarthHow, The
History of the Universe: The Big Bang and Beyond, author not
listed, updated 5/12/2022. See also National
most popular theory of our universe's origin centers on a cosmic
cataclysm unmatched in all of history – the big bang. By
Michael Greshko and National Geographic Staff, 1/18/2017.
In summary on this point, the
version of the Big Bang theorizes that,
billions of years ago, a random
quantum fluctuation occurred in a spaceless, timeless “singularity.”
That fluctuation (or bang),
over billions of years, formed the known universe.
“singularity” was, according to the predominate Big Bang theory,
smaller than the size of the period at the end of this sentence. The
theory does not and cannot explain the origin of the “singularity”
(i.e., the very small, very hot, and very dense substance that
existed before the Big Bang).
The entirety of the immense universe started by the explosion of a
dot? That's their theory, in a nutshell, and they don't know how the
dot got there. (A nutshell is much larger than a dot.)
The atheist, therefore, must know, and
cannot know, the origin of the theoretical “singularity,” which
could not have been eternal, even if it had existed.
By the way, other versions of
the Big Bang theory exist. These include (with my comments
– The multiverse: one “singularity” exploded or “banged” and has formed and is forming an ongoing multitude of other universes besides ours. What or Who started the first “bang?”
– The oscillating universe: there is an endless series of “big bangs” and “big crunches.” Again, what or Who started the first “bang?” An “endless series” is a logical contradiction. The line had to start somewhere.
– The “flat hologram” universe: the universe is only a projection on the surface of a vast sphere. Really? Is this a joke? What or Who created the vast sphere?
– The digital simulation universe: the universe is only code inside an immense computer. I did not and cannot make up this one! It's imagination gone wild. What or Who created the hypothetical immense computer?
source, for the four versions listed, is on Space.com,
to the Big Bang Theory, by Karl
Tate, contributions from Daisy Dobrijevic, published 3/8/2022.
For further study on the Big Bang
theory or theories, see – Answers
in Genesis, under Topics,
and select Big
Bang topic page. The page explains five problems with the Big
Bang theory. Several other articles that debunk the Big Bang theory
are listed in that topic page.
Comment on Macro-Evolution
the Darwinian “molecules to man” theory that speculates -- with
no proof – that life evolved from non-life (“the rocks to
molecules” theory). Darwinian theory speculates that life, which
evolved from non-life, continued to evolve, eventually evolving into
human life. The theory was introduced just over 160 years and
continues to be revised. (Darwinian evolutionary theory continues to
scientists express their theory in intricate, scientific jargon,
which intimidates some to believe the theory. Do not allow their
jargon to intimidate you! They have no proof to support their theory.
Their jargon reasons in a circle – by using assumptions, based on
their conclusion, that, in their minds only, “prove” their
conclusion. Such circular reasoning is a logical fallacy.
violates the law of biogenesis, which has established that new
life always comes from existing life, not from non-living matter. Of
course, anyone with common sense knows this.
comprehensive and further study on Big Bang theories, macro-evolution
(Darwinism), and proof that God exists, see – Proof
Evolution is False, by Shawn
Nelson (Doctor of Ministry in Apologetics), February 2014. (The
article can be downloaded.) It is a 31-page scholarly paper, which
encapsulates the flaws in Darwinian evolution. Note that Dr. Shawn
Nelson's ongoing website is Geeky
Christian. His academic work is on Nelson.Ink,
from which his February 2014 article is cited. I may not agree with
all of his articles. I accept and agree with his paper that I have
evolution relies on the refuted Big Bang theory and does not help the
atheist. It is hoped that these brief sidetracks did not
distract the reader's attention to the main purpose of this article.
Let's return now to
that main purpose. The major and minor premises have been
established. The conclusion is next.
therefore, an Eternal First Cause, God, has always exited.
universe is not eternal (is finite), then an Eternal First Cause has
This article has proved it.
The Eternal First Cause is called God
– the Eternal Mind, Power, and Intellect, Who has always
existed, above and before matter, space, and time. The argument is
sound and must be true. It cannot be wrong.
The Atheist's Further Quibbles
The atheist, in
labored effort to support his position, may offer a few more
quibbles. The rebuttal of two will be brief.
the atheist may ask, “What if an infinite line of 'First Causes'
caused the universe?” The reply, obviously, is that an infinite
line is a logical contradiction. Every line must start somewhere!
What eternality, or Eternal Being, started the line? God is the
Necessary (or First) Cause.
the atheist may ask and state, “What if the “First Cause”
died? Your argument does not prove that God is still alive.”
The reply, again, is obvious. If ever nothing or no one existed, then
nothing would exist now. An eternality, or Eternal Being, has always
existed and, therefore, cannot die. This is why the specific
definition of “eternal” and “eternity,” in this argument,
means “that which has always existed, had no beginning, and will
have no end.”
This article has
explained that the universe could exist by only three possible means.
The first is spontaneous generation (creating itself from nothing).
That has been verified as false. The second is an eternal universe.
That has been disproved. The third and final is that God created the
universe. That is proved.
Atheists rely on
one thin “match stick” (the Big Bang theory) to prop up their
“short, little stool.” This article has broken that “match
stick.” Their “stool” has fallen.
This article is the
third and final “strong pole” that supports the “bright street
light.” May these three articles be used, to God's glory, as the
first step to bring many non-believers to saving faith in Christ.
The first sentence
in the Bible is a fitting conclusion:
In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.
(Genesis 1:1, NIV)