Wednesday, March 22, 2023

Paint & Cut Shop Versus Barbershop: It's a True Story (published 3-22-2023; article #398)

“Old cars in restoration workshop,” published 6/4/2020, by Egor Vikhrev, on Unsplash. Free to use under the Unsplash License.


A next-door neighbor has a detached shop, in which he restores old vehicles. I've been in his shop many times, over the years. His shop looks a little like the one in the above image, but nicer.

To an Appalachian Irishman, these shops are called paint and body shops. Old vehicles go in, and classic showroom vehicles come out. Those shops can also spruce up dings, dents, and paint, for a newer vehicle that had a boo-boo.

How does a paint and body shop bring up the difference between a paint & cut shop and a barbershop? Well, this humorous article will explain.

Paint & Cut Shop

The “long-suffering” Mrs. Appalachian Irishman and one of her sisters use the same beauty parlor. (They are called salons now.) Her sister had an appointment for a “paint and cut” yesterday. My wife had her appointment today.

Why don't they go together?” -- a reader asks. They use the same “stylist” (barber). A “paint and cut” (fancy haircut and dye job) takes at least two hours. They can't ride together, to see the same “barber,” on the same day, since one would have to wait a couple of hours, while the other one was getting “painted and cutted.”

I used to call it their “high dollar haircut” place. Yesterday, I was inspired to rename it their “paint and cut shop.” The shop is actually called Salon Yeager.

That's a fancy, yuppie website, folks! Watch that young lady walk in and be greeted! It's like a little movie! Various women are enjoying wonderful “paint and cut” experiences, in the shop and hanging around in beautiful, yuppie locations outside!

The service menu warns that prices shown are starting prices. Among the services, I need to ask: what is a Balayage color? What is a Brazilian Blowout specialty hair? What is a Ouidad haircut? I've never needed a chin wax, especially since I have a beard.

My wife's paint and cut shop, from home, is a one-way drive of 28 minutes (19.3 miles). The usual “out the door” cost is in the mid-to-upper $100 range, depending on how much paint is needed – for that one small patch of gray hair on a corner of her forehead. Dear, take me up on my offer. I'll get some brown paint and paint it for you, at no cost, except the paint!

At least my wife's high dollar haircut, at the paint and cut shop, happens about every two months or so. I'm glad it's not ever four to six weeks, like my haircuts.


Now, let's contrast my wife's paint and cut shop to my barbershop. I've written about and have recommended Tony's Best Clips. (See “Business Recommendations: northeast Knox County, TN.”) From home, the one-way drive is 15 minutes (8.8 miles).

Tony is both a master barber and a cosmetologist. His website is concise, informative, and practical. Thankfully, it does not show a movie about some feller walking into his shop. My positive comments are found, on his website, by selecting the “Read More” button, under “Testimonials.” Also, the title of my 2/13/2021 article includes the name of his barbershop.

Before the new China-made cold virus, I usually just walked in, on any given Saturday, for a haircut. No appointment was needed. I'd usually waited a few minutes for my turn, talking with Tony, other fellers, or reading an outdoors magazine. If I were lucky, not many other guys were waiting. Since the new cold virus, however, Tony cuts by appointment. I call, arrange the date and time, and get another great haircut!

The perfect haircut takes a few minutes only. (A real man doesn't paint his gray hair. See Proverbs 16:31; 20:29!) About twenty years ago, when I started going to Tony for haircuts, the cost was in the single digits. Over the years, inflation has taken its toll, as on everything, especially lately. Tony had to start charging a low double-digit cost for a haircut. (He has to have enough for a Happy Meal at McDonald's! That's a joke that Tony and I know.)

Hey, dear, as I've said before, Tony can cut and paint your hair! He's a cosmetologist also! I've seen his prices on cut and paint. It's less than your yuppie salon – and closer to home!


Yes, I know. I should be working more on my next Christian Evidences series article. I needed to write the article of yesterday and today first. This Appalachian Irishman has to enjoy a little writing humor at times.

As I close, Mrs. Appalachian Irishman is just over an hour into her two-hour paint and cut. I wonder if either her sister or she will read and comment on this article. We will see. Of course any male reader is welcome to comment. Any female reader, who is brave enough to comment, will receive my graciously sarcastic response. (I have to warn them, guys!)

Tuesday, March 21, 2023

Church Hayride & the Moonshine Still: It's a True Story (published 3-21-2023; article #397)

Image added by EllieWalker & posted in Alcohol and Old Lace, in The Andy Griffith Show Episodes, Season 1, on Fandom. Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.


For the life of me, I don't recall which year. I was a teenager, probably fourteen or fifteen, and a member of the West View Baptist Church youth group. Mom (Betty Lou Wood Ferrell, 11/24/1932 - 12/27/2000) and another lady, Sandra V., taught and led the youth group. We met, in Sunday School, before the morning worship service. We enjoyed several other activities, such as rollerskating and hayrides. Several adult chaperones helped. The youth group was a wonderful, positive, and formative part of my teenage years, back in the 1970s.

The adult chaperones, around Halloween, had arranged a fall hayride and bonfire, for the youth group. The bonfire -- with roasted marshmallows (marshmellers, as we called them), hotdogs, and Cokes -- followed the hayride.

What do a youth hayride and a moonshine still have in common? This twenty-second article on Appalachia - Upper East TN will explain. It's heritage and humor also. This article is inspired by Grandpa’s Still, on Blind Pig & the Acorn, by Garland Davis, published by Tipper, 3/16/2023. Reading that article, in the context of this article, is highly suggested. (I'll wait here, until you're back, after having read that article. It's a good article.)

Church Hayride

As I recall, a couple dozen or more of us teenagers rode in the big hay wagon. An adult chaperone or two rode with us. I think that Mom was one. A man drove the tractor that pulled us. As dusk approached darkness, the hayride started.

We rode off a two-lane highway and along various dirt roads, which were lined by trees, ridges, and fields. Singing, talking, and joking, we were enjoying a great time! I probably had a liking to a young lady or two. In shyness, I probably tried to do some subtle courting. (Yes, I was shy, until my junior year in high school, when my Irish blarney starting opening my glib, Irish tongue!)

After a good, long ride, the tractor driver hunted an open area, to turn the hayride back for the food and bonfire. He found an open gate, in a field, that was near someone's barn.

Moonshine Still

As we began to circle around behind the barn, to make the return loop, the driver pushed the tractor into high gear and exclaimed, “Hang on!” The wagon jerked, causing most of us to roll backward in the hay! I'm glad that the wagon had wooden side boards; otherwise, some of us could have fallen off the wagon. We rode in high gear, hanging onto each other or to the side boards, until the hay wagon was back onto the dirt road safely.

What happened? Why did we have to go so fast?” -- we had asked and wondered. Just before the tractor jumped into high gear, I'd noticed, near the back of that barn, something that looked like a big barrel, with pipes on it. I didn't know what it was -- at first.

Safely back onto the dirt road, the driver replied, “Did you see that still? Someone has a moonshine still behind the barn! We had to get out of there!” Well, no wonder! I'm glad that no one was making moonshine at the time! Coming upon moonshine making, even by accident, could have been very dangerous -- even on a church hayride.


Almost everyone, who was born and raised in Appalachia, has had a moonshiner in the family or a moonshine story to tell. Thanks, to Tipper, for inspiring this story, as she shared Garland Davis' story.

Fallen off the wagon” usually means that someone has started drinking again. As a teenager, I was glad that none of us young uns had “fallen off the wagon” -- when the tractor driver high geared us away from that still!

Do I hear you laughing? I thought so!

Friday, March 17, 2023

Reaction to Carl Spain Center's Letters of Response to White Supremacy: Happy St. Patrick's Day! (published 3-17-2023; article 396)

Irish American Heritage Month on 99Covers, by free download.


Happy St. Patrick's Day, dear reader! It is green, wet, and rainy, here in these parts. The conclusion will include a brief mention of St. Patrick's Day. First, however, the reason for this article is explained. (This is the tenth article by Worldviews in Conflict topic.)

Early on the Sunday afternoon of 3/5/2023 -- while engaged in further research, on the sixth article, in my Christian Evidences series -- I happened to come upon an article, by a godly brother in Christ, with whom I have exchanged online correspondence, over the years. The article is A Letter to the Body of Christ, by Dr. John Mark Hicks, on John Mark Hicks, 2/13/2023.

Later that afternoon, I spoke by phone with a friend, whom I've known since grade school. He had attained age 63 on Friday. Our conversation -- after having read brother Hicks' article -- had inspired this writing, which I'd been keeping in draft. It is completed and published on St. Patrick's Day.

The news media report facts on news topics, followed by the reactions of their guests. I do not care to hear those reactions. Just present the facts, with no spin. I am able to react!

First, this article reports the facts on the Carl Spain Center on Race Studies and Spiritual Action and the Carl Spain Center on Race Studies & Spiritual Action: Letters of Conscience to the Churches in America: A Courageous Christian Response to White Supremacy. Then, it places my reaction to that news -- about which I'd not known, until 3/5/2023 – in the context of the phone conversation with my grade school friend. The conclusion will encourage churches to wake up, not woke up.

The Fact: the Carl Spain Center

Dr. Hicks' 2/13/2023 article presents the 4/21/2020 transcript of his initial oral presentation, at the opening of the Carl Spain Center on Race Studies and Spiritual Action, at Abilene Christian University (ACU), in Abilene, Texas. His transcript is included in Letters of Conscience to the Churches in America: A Courageous Christian Response to White Supremacy. Dr. Hicks' website includes articles that are useful to me, in my ongoing Christian Evidences series. I had visited his website for that purpose. I was surprised to find his 2/13/2023 article.

Investigating further, on the Carl Spain Center on Race Studies and Spiritual Action website, I confirmed that the Center is affiliated with Abilene Christian University (ACU), as ACU's undated Campus News article, ACU announces new Carl Spain Center on Race Studies and Spiritual Action, states and as Carl Spain Center – History states. Apparently the Carl Spain Center started in 2018. The mission of the Center is to “. . . conduct research on the historical and contemporary role of race and racism in the church and its Christian institutions.” The Center's purpose is to assist churches in their understanding of race, promote racial unity, and to draw Christians, of all races, closer to God and to each other. The mission and purpose, as stated, are laudable, of course.

The Fact: Letters of Conscience to the Churches in America: A Courageous Christian Response to White Supremacy

The Carl Spain Center website does not include a search option; however, by selecting the Resources link, one of the three Resource Downloads links is to A Christian Response to White Supremacy. The direct download and complete title is: Carl Spain Center on Race Studies & Spiritual Action: Letters of Conscience to the Churches in America: A Courageous Christian Response to White Supremacy.

The undated volume is 135 pages. The Forward is by Jerry Taylor, Executive Director. The volume, apparently, was published in 2020, within the paradigm shift of the new cold virus (COVID-19) and the racial tensions that were major focus points at the time.

The volume includes letters by twenty-nine individuals. I know two, who are brothers in Christ. Dr. Hicks' letter is found on pages 40-45. The letter by the other brother is found on pages 21-25. That brother and I had spoken in person several times, in our younger years. I knew his Christian parents very well. His family and he were missionaries in Ghana for many years.

I read most, but not all, of those twenty-nine letters. (After a while, I grew tired of reading the same type of statements.) My specific focus was on the Forward and on the two letters, by the known brothers in Christ. The volume ends with the Index, on pages 132-135.

The letters cite biblical themes of spiritual unity in Christ and encourage all Christians to that unity. Who could not agree? Letters oppose “white supremacy,” white supremacists,” and the “white supremacy movement.” Agreement against that form of racism should be universal. Universal agreement should be against all forms of racism.

The underlying theme of the letters follows the paradigm shift, in 2020, which is continuing. For example, my search of the volume, excluding the Index, finds “racism” used forty-one times. “Systemic racism” is found once. “White supremacy” is found nineteen times – including the title page. “White supremacist” is found eleven times. “Privilege” is used in the context of “white privilege” nine times. “White privilege” is used once. One letter, on page 45, encourages white churches and white Christians to confess their corporate sin of racism.

Following the paradigm shift of 2020, however, the volume, as titled, specifically opposes “white supremacy,” as it intended and as it should have. It does not, however, except in general terms, state opposition to other forms of racism against other ethnic groups. The balanced approach, against all forms of racism, as properly and biblically defined, is missing.

My Reaction -- in the Context of the Phone Conversation with My Grade School Friend

The volume, including letters by twenty-nine individuals, did not define key terms that are used. Let us define those key terms. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines the following terms.

Racism: 1: a belief that race is a fundamental determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race. also: behavior or attitudes that reflect and foster this belief : racial discrimination or prejudice. 2 a: the systemic oppression of a racial group to the social, economic, and political advantage of another. b: a political or social system founded on racism and designed to execute its principles.

White supremacy: 1: the belief that the white race is inherently superior to other races and that white people should have control over people of other races. 2: the social, economic, and political systems that collectively enable white people to maintain power over people of other races.

White supremacist: a person who believes that the white race is inherently superior to other races and that white people should have control over people of other races.

White privilege: the set of social and economic advantages that white people have by virtue of their race (see race entry 1 sense 1a) in a culture characterized by racial inequality.

The Merriam-Webster Dictionary does not define “systemic racism;” however, the Cambridge Dictionary does, as follows.

Systemic racism: policies and practices that exist throughout a whole society or organization, and that result in and support a continued unfair advantage to some people and unfair or harmful treatment of others based on race.

The 135-page volume is understood in the context of the 2020 paradigm shift. Despite the biblical comments, which are good, the volume follows the secular “white privilege” agenda. That agenda alleges that all white people, corporately, are guilty of the sin of racism (even if only socially and economically) against all black people, by virtue of having been born white. That “racist from birth” agenda is a form of negative peer pressure. While we (as individuals) should confess and repent of every legitimate sin, the imposition, by negative peer pressure, of an alleged corporate sin of racism upon an entire race is, in itself, a form of judgmental racism, or sin.

Those who wrote the letters in that volume simply followed the negative peer pressure of the “white privilege” agenda. In other words, they followed the socialist propaganda, even if they didn't realize it.

My grade school friend and I had a good and long conversation. We talked about many subjects. He brought up the subject of “white supremacy.” Reflecting on our school-age days, my friend didn't recall any personal racism against black children. He and I both remember several black children of our age then. We liked and got along well with them, as they did us. I observed that parents, black or white, had raised us young folks, in the proper and biblical manner. We remembered what our parents had taught us, in the little song that we had sung: “Red and yellow, black and white. They are precious in His sight.” We judged by content of character, not by skin color, as a wise man (Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.) had stated, in his eloquent restatement of biblical wisdom.

My friend observed that any “white privilege” that he had, as a boy, must have been the “privilege” of working hard on the farm and in the fields. Yes, that was similar to my “white privilege,” which included eating a lot of soup beans and mashed potatoes and hard work, by the chores that Mom and Dad expected me to do (without any allowance paid).

My friend and I were both raised, in a rural area of northeast Tennessee, near a small town, by godly parents. We were not raised in wealthy families, monetarily. We were wealthy, in that we were raised by godly parents.

In my 3/10/2021 article, I wrote, in part:

Anyone who is truly Appalachian knows that the color of the skin does not matter. What matters is the content of character. Appalachians have known this for decades. I have met many fine Appalachians -- red, yellow, black, and white. On 3/7/2021, while on House Mountain hike #177, I met a family (man, wife, and child) hiking up as I was hiking down. Their skin was black. My skin was white. We all made new Appalachian friends! I hope that I see them again.

Irish heritage and black history have one item in common. Actually, any genealogy has one item in common. What is that one item? All people are one, starting from Adam and Eve. Also, all people, who are Christians, are one, in Christ. I refuse to allow the socialist propagandists to distinguish us. Do you? You should not.

Today, I would not change a single word. My basic reaction to the 135-page volume is that I will not allow the negative peer pressure, of alleged corporate and white racism, to influence me into a sense of false guilt or to force me to repent of an alleged sin. The volume does well, to encourage oneness in Christ. It, however, errs by affirming the alleged sin of corporate white supremacy.


The church is not divided by race, color, social status, gender, or age. The apostle Paul has told Christians that we are “all one in Christ Jesus.” (See Gal. 3:26-28.) Before His atoning sacrifice, Jesus' prayer to the Father was for all Christians to be united and one, as He and the Father are one, so that the world would believe in Him. (See Jn. 17:20-23.)

I have ministered in predominately white nations (America and Russia), black nations (Jamaica), and brown nations (India). A specific focus of ministry was in a predominately black community, in Charleston, Missouri. Mom and Dad raised me correctly. I am not guilty of “corporate” racism, simply by having been born white.

My article of 1/22/2023 defined “woke” correctly. The conclusion states, in part:

In both my 7/22/2022 article and 7/22/2022 podcast, my written and spoken conclusion was:

Wake up (not woke up), America! Do not go to the devil! Turn to the Lord! I have spoken.

I hope that the Carl Spain Center and all who contributed to the Letters of Conscience to the Churches in America: A Courageous Christian Response to White Supremacy are following the Lord's agenda – not the “woke” agenda (by the common and secular meaning).

Wednesday, March 15, 2023

My Brief Humor on Briefs, in “Dagwood” Winter: Are You Ready for the Final Resurrection? (published 3-15-2023; article #395)


Greetings, dear reader! Dagwood is a comic strip, which I enjoyed reading as a child. Around these parts, we're in dogwood or redwood winter – whichever or both. Yesterday, for example, the low was about 30Fahrenheit (F) and the high was about 42F. This morning, the low was a balmy 20F. In humor, I call this “Dagwood” winter – just to see how folks respond.

If you're interested in all those little winters, in Tennessee, a good article is: Blackberry Winter & Other Tennessee Little Winters, on Tennessee Historical Society, by Ann Toplovich, 4/23/2019. The article explains the traditions behind all the little winters.

Reading the following article, however, is highly suggested. It tells the legend of the dogwood tree: The Legend Of The Dogwood, on Blind Pig & the Acorn, by Tipper, 4/23/2010. Tipper's website is the first listing under Appalachian Heritage, on this website, for a good reason. I visit there every few days, to read a while. She has fresh articles, on Appalachian heritage, about every day.

As my ninety-eight article on humor, this one will be “brief.” The conclusion, however, will return to the legend of the dogwood. May this article inspire both laughter and reflection. After having published my sixth article on Christian Evidences yesterday, I need a little humor!

Brief” Humor

On 2/16/2023, a Thursday, I had to break down and order new underwear (or “briefs,” as some folks call them), online at Kohl's. (No, I didn't need new underwear, due to my Valentine's Day “roto-rooter,” as mentioned in my 2/15/2023 article.) The local Kohl's, which I'd visited on 1/27/2023, did not have them in stock. (It's the “new normal” of “supply chain” problems, in the new Socialist Utopian Oblivion, but I digress.)

If I'd been able to purchase in the store, then I might have noticed the difference. Online, I had ordered the following. The red font indicates my mistake.

Two packs of men's white, size 32, Jockey 4-pack Classic Low-Rise Briefs, $47.20. (That's $5.90 for one pair of underwear, if you're calculating, as I had done. A dollar ain't worth much, in “these inflationary times.” One pair of underwear should cost about $2.50 or $3.00 only.)

One “Minecraft Mini Mining Figure Set,” on clearance, $1.99. (The “regular” price was $7.99, for a little toy, made in China. Amazing!)

The before tax total was $49.19. (I had to buy that little toy, to get “free” shipping, sadly. The order had to be over $49.00. I was nineteen cents over!)

The following is a photograph, which I took, of the “Minecraft Mini Mining Figure Set.” The little toy is placed proudly on my home office desk. It reminds me of the humor in the “new normal.”

What was my mistake?” -- you ask? I should have purchased men's white, size 32, Jockey 4-pack “Classic” underwear, without that “Low-Rise” stuff added. “What's the difference? -- you ask?

The following photograph that I'd taken doesn't show the difference, except in the name. The “Classic Brief” is an old pair. The “Classic Low Rise” is a new pair. Both are made, sadly, in Cambodia, not in the USSA (Un-united Socialist States of America). By the way, when did the USSA become a bilingual nation, like Canada?

The difference is that the “Low-Rise are about an inch narrower at the waist and about an inch lower in height – despite both being size 32. I can wear the new ones. I've been a size 32 waist, since I stopped growing. The “Low-Rise are comfortable enough, despite being a size 31, as I suspect. I prefer the “Classic” actual size 32 fit!

So, what have I been doing? I've been looking on various online shopping websites, to see if the “Classic” fit underwear are in stock – in a store. Of course, I've had no luck. Eventually, I plan to either find the “Classic” fit in a store – which would be a “muricle” -- or pay very close attention to the high dollar “Classic” fit underwear that I buy online again. I won't make the same mistake twice!


The dogwood tree legend is that the tree was once as large as an oak tree. A dogwood tree, due to its size, was used to make the cross, on which Jesus was crucified. The tree regretted it's size, to be used to make that cross. Since then, the dogwood tree has grown smaller, as it is today, with blossoms in the form of a cross. Of course, this is legend. It's a nice legend. The legend, however, is not true.

The historical fact of the crucifixion of Jesus, however, is reported by the inspired writers – Matthew (27:32-44), Mark (15:22-32), Luke (23:33-43) and John (19:17-24). The reading of the Gospel accounts -- in the context of the Last Supper during Passover, Jesus' death, His resurrection, and His ascension -- is recommended.

This “brief” humor, in “Dagwood” winter, ends -- as St. Patrick's Day approaches, in two days. Also approaching are Good Friday, on April 7th, and Resurrection (or Easter) Sunday, on April 9th.

I am ready for the final resurrection. Are you, dear reader? This “brief” article concludes, with the apostle Paul's inspired words, about the final resurrection, to the first century church at Thessalonica:

Brothers and sisters, we do not want you to be uninformed about those who sleep in death, so that you do not grieve like the rest of mankind, who have no hope. For we believe that Jesus died and rose again, and so we believe that God will bring with Jesus those who have fallen asleep in him. According to the Lord’s word, we tell you that we who are still alive, who are left until the coming of the Lord, will certainly not precede those who have fallen asleep. For the Lord himself will come down from heaven, with a loud command, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet call of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. After that, we who are still alive and are left will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And so we will be with the Lord forever. Therefore encourage one another with these words. (1 Thessalonians 4:13-18, NIV)

Tuesday, March 14, 2023

CHRISTIAN EVIDENCES (APOLOGETICS): Inspiration of the Bible - Historical Accuracy (published 3-14-2023; article #394; series article #6)

Photo (6/29/2020) by Aaron Burden on Unsplash. Free to use under the Unsplash License.


The above photograph, selected for this topic question, is fitting – except that the path should be straight. The Bible is the only book, inspired by God, that guides us along the straight path, to the Light. Imagine that the photograph looks east, to the rising sun.

Greetings, for the sixth time, to this series on Christian Evidences (Apologetics), dear reader and student. I trust that you are well. My wife and I are doing well enough, by God's grace, in this new year. Thank you for your continued interest in this vitally important series. This article is dedicated to my late maternal grandfather, as the conclusion will state.

The introduction to this series was on 10/28/2022. The undeniable truth that God exists was established by the articles of 11/4/2022, 11/16/2022, and 11/26/2022. The article of 12/9/2022 discussed what is known about God's character from natural revelation. That article also discussed the so-called “problem of evil” and the concept of hell.

The writing of sixteen articles, since 12/9/2022, and other interests and obligations have delayed the publication of this article until now. The occasional research and writing had continued, since last November. Sifting through volumes of information, to select specific sources, for inclusion in this relatively brief article, has taken time also.

This article will begin to answer the third topic question in this Christian Evidences series: is the Bible the solely-inspired written word of God? “Bible” is transliterated from the Greek, βίβλος, which means “Book.” The Bible, thus, is the Book.

Important Preliminaries

First, however, certain important preliminary points need to be made. Then, this third topic question will begin to be answered. The preliminaries include the concept of inspiration, the Canon of Scripture, and the art and science of textual criticism.

Please be aware that the preliminaries do not get “the cart before the horse.” The reasoning will not be circular (i.e., by the logical fallacy of stating that the Bible is inspired by God, because it says so). The preliminaries include website references to scholarly articles, for further personal study.

The Concept of Inspiration

The Bible defines the concept of its inspiration. In his second letter to Timothy, the apostle Paul wrote:

All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness, so that the servant of God may be thoroughly equipped for every good work. (2 Timothy 3:16-17, NIV)

“God-breathed” is translated from the Greek, θεόπνευστος, which means, literally as translated, “God-breathed.” The King James Version translates the Greek word, also correctly, as “is given by inspiration of God.”

During His 40 days and nights of temptation by the devil, Jesus replied to the devil:

It is written: ‘Man shall not live on bread alone, but on every word that comes from the mouth of God.’ (Matthew 4:4, NIV)

Jesus quoted exactly from Deuteronomy 8:3. To read the Bible, thus, is to read God's breathed words, through His inspired writers. Every written word is from God.

During the Passover meal, Jesus comforted His disciples by stating:

But the Advocate, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you all things and will remind you of everything I have said to you. (John 14:26, NIV)


But when he, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all the truth. He will not speak on his own; he will speak only what he hears, and he will tell you what is yet to come. (John 16:13, NIV)

Regarding the prophets, the apostle Peter stated that they “. . . spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.” (2 Peter 1:21, NIV). See also 1 Peter 1:12. God the Father, by God the Holy Spirit, spoke His word to the biblical writers, who wrote the very words of God.

The concept of inspiration, therefore, is that God inspired, completely, each and every word written by the authors of the Bible. This is often called verbal plenary inspiration. The concept of “dynamic equivalent” or “thought” inspiration, as it is called, therefore, is incorrect, according to scripture. That false concept states that God inspired the “thoughts” of the authors, not their words. Of course, that concept fails to understand that thoughts consist of mental images and words.

Inspiration, however, was not by divine dictation that excluded the personalities and writing styles of the inspired authors. Those characteristics are distinct and noticeable. Also, grammatical mistakes, such as the one that I am making now, does [sic] not disprove inspiration or indicate divine mistakes. They are only grammatical mistakes. (I should have written, “Grammatical mistakes . . . do not . . . .”) The inspired authors wrote in various languages and writing styles, which include grammatical mistakes.

Inspiration applies to the original manuscripts (autographs), which no longer exist. Thousands of early manuscript copies, however, exist and have undergone scholarly study. The study of those copies (textual criticism) confirms, by abundant and convincing evidence, that the Canon of Scripture has been transmitted accurately through the centuries. (See the section, below, on The Art and Science of Textual Criticism.)

Translations – of the Hebrew, Aramaic, and Koine Greek into other languages, such as English – are not inspired. Accurate translations, however, exist and convey the exact words and meaning of the original languages. For example, consider John 3:16. The meaning in either language is the same.

Greek: Οὕτως γὰρ ἠγάπησεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν κόσμον ὥστε τὸν υἱὸν τὸν μονογενῆ ἔδωκεν, ἵνα πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων εἰς αὐτὸν μὴ ἀπόληται ἀλλὰ ἔχῃ ζωὴν αἰώνιον. (Source: SBL NT.)

Russian: Ведь Бог так полюбил этот мир, что отдал Своего единственного Сына, чтобы каждый верующий в Него не погиб, но имел вечную жизнь. (Source: New Russian Translation, NRT.)

English: For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. (Source: NIV.)

The Canon of Scripture

”Canon” is transliterated from the Greek, κανών, and means, literally, reed, standard, or measuring rod. It is a “measuring stick.” “Scripture” refers to the God-breathed words in the Bible -- as validated by textual criticism, accurate translation, and proper interpretation.

The specific Canon of Scripture, in the Protestant Bible, is the sixty-six books, including thirty-nine in the Old Testament and twenty-seven in the New Testament. “Books,” as a general term, include history, law, poetry, prophecy, gospels, letters (epistles), and apocalypse.

The Old Testament consists of five books of law (the Pentateuch) from Genesis through Deuteronomy, twelve books of history from Joshua through Esther, five books of poetry from Job through the Song of Solomon, five major prophets from Isaiah through Daniel, and twelve minor prophets from Hosea through Malachi.

The New Testament consists of the four gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John), Acts (on early Christian history), thirteen letters (epistles) by the apostle Paul from Romans through Philemon, eight other letters (epistles) from Hebrews through Jude, and Revelation (the apocalyptic volume by the apostle John).

How was the Canon of Scripture determined? What about the non-canonical books? The full answers to those questions are outside the scope of this brief article; however, the answers are found in the following five scholarly sources. The reader is encouraged to study the sources independently.

First, see The Canon and Extra-Canonical Writings, on Apologetics Press, by AP Staff, 12/31/2002. Second and third, see The Old Testament Canon, on Evidence Unseen, by James M. Rochford (MA, Theological Studies), undated and The New Testament Canon, on Evidence Unseen, by James M. Rochford (MA, Theological Studies), undated. Fourth, see The Canon of Scripture, on Blue Letter Bible. Finally, see “Development of the canon” on Theopedia. (References to those sources accept the contents of those specific sources. The references, however, do not imply the acceptance of every article on each website.)

In summary of the five sources that have been cited, God determined the Canon of Scripture, not man. Scholarly study, however, has fully and accurately discovered what God has established as the Canon of Scripture – His inspired word to humankind.

The Art and Science of Textual Criticism

Textual criticism is an art and science. It does not criticize the Bible, in a negative sense. It is the accurate discovery of the original and unavailable autographs, by the study of the manuscripts, including translations, of those autographs.

Volumes of scholarly books, websites, and articles exist on the subject of textual criticism, as it relates to the Bible. It is beyond the scope of this article to delve more deeply into the subject; however, five select sources are referenced, for your further study.

The first four sources are from Apologetics Press. The series of three articles, by Justin Rogers, PhD, are: The Birth of the Book (Part 1), published 1/3/2022; The Birth of the Book (Part 2), published 2/7/2022; and The Integrity of the Biblical Text (Part 3): Text of the Old Testament, published 3/1/2022. The fourth article is: Has the Bible Been Transmitted To Us Accurately? By Dave Miller, PhD, published 10/6/2019. That article also contrasts the quality of textual criticism for the Bible to the inadequate textual criticism for the Koran – which, by the way, refers to the Old and New Testaments of the Bible as inspired. The final source is New Testament Textual Criticism on Theopedia.

It is noteworthy that New Testament manuscripts are far more (in number) and earlier (in proximity to the first century AD) than manuscripts for other ancient and unavailable autographs. The sources cited previously unfold the evidence.

The review of those five sources concludes that textual criticism is certain that the manuscripts of the Bible are 99.9% accurate to the autographs. The 0.1% variation does not affect any point of doctrine. The study of those five select sources is highly recommended.

Why did God not ensure that the original autographs were preserved? No one knows. A speculation is that God did not want us to venerate (worship) the autographs, but to worship Him.

The General Affirmative

Now that the preliminaries are out of the way, let us begin to affirm that the Bible is the solely-inspired written word of God. The general affirmative will be stated, followed by the first of three lines of proof, which are selected. Other lines of proof are available, but the select three are necessary and sufficient.

Biblical inspiration is established, independently, by each line of proof. The illustration is the same “bright street light, supported by three strong poles, not just one,” as this series article of 11/4/2022 mentioned, in relation proving the existence of God.

The general affirmative is:

If the Bible has certain characteristics (distinguishing traits, qualities, or properties) that human authors could not have accomplished (achieved) alone (apart from God), then the Bible is the inspired word of God. The Bible has certain characteristics that human authors could not have accomplished alone. Therefore, the Bible is the inspired word of God.

Three certain characteristics -- which human authors could not have accomplished alone -- are the historical accuracy of the Bible (by archaeological evidence), the unity of the Bible (in theme, purpose, and doctrine), and biblical prophecy.

The Affirmative from the Characteristic of Historical Accuracy

This article presents the characteristic of the historical accuracy of the Bible. It begins with four important points. Future articles, Lord willing, will present the unity of the Bible and biblical prophecy.

Four Important Points

“Accuracy,” in general, means free from mistake or error. It is the same as inerrancy (containing no error). It affirms that the manuscripts of the Bible, which are 99.9% accurate to the autographs, contain no mistakes or errors, aside from grammatical mistakes. The following are four important points, which must be established, before the historical accuracy of the Bible is presented.

(1) Interpretation and Harmonization

Importantly, proper contextual interpretation and harmonization are essential, to affirm the general and historical accuracies of the Bible. Either by malevolent or benign intent, texts are misunderstood, taken out of context, and cited as alleged errors. Proper study, however, resolves the alleged errors.

As one of many examples, a contradiction is alleged between Matthew 27:5 (in which, Judas threw down the 30 silver pieces in the temple and hanged himself) and Acts 1:18 (in which, Judas purchased a field with the 30 silver pieces, fell, and burst open gruesomely). A proper study of Matthew 27:3-10 and Acts 1:18-19, however, reveals that the chief priests used the 30 silver pieces, which Judas had thrown down, to buy the field on his behalf. The texts state that Judas hanged himself, possibly to death. The texts suggest that, when Judas was either dying or dead, the noose (or device) dislodged his body, causing it to fall headlong and burst open. His body fell from the noose (or device), either by slipping free, by being cut down, or by decomposition. Everyone in Jerusalem knew about it (Acts 1:19). (A good article that resolves this alleged contradiction is: What Is the Field of Blood in the Bible? By G. Connor Salter, SEO Editor, on, 4/8/2022.) The first century authors, Matthew and Luke, each wrote about Judas' suicide and included certain details. They knew, but did not include, every detail. We can deduce details from what they mentioned. By deduction, the separate accounts do not contradict. A credible contextual interpretation and harmonization are sufficient to remove the alleged contradiction. (The plan is to publish a separate article on alleged discrepancies, in the future, Lord willing.)

(2) Accurate Translation

Secondly, an accurate translation of the Bible is essential, in the affirmation of biblical accuracy. Alleged contradictions arise from inaccurate translations of certain texts. The inaccurate translation of a particular text does not imply that the entire translation is inaccurate, but only that certain texts were not translated correctly.

As one example, an alleged error in Acts is cited, due to inadequacies in the King James and New King James translations. Those translations read that Saul's companions, at the same moment, heard the voice (Acts 9:7) but did not hear the voice (Acts 22:9). The New International Version, however, translates accurately that Saul's companions “heard the sound” (Acts 9:7) but “did not understand the voice” (Acts 22:9). The same Greek verb, ἀκούω (to hear), is used in both verses. In Acts 9:7, the verb is in the genitive, meaning to hear in general without necessarily understanding (“heard the sound”). In Acts 22:9, the verb is in the accusative, meaning to hear with understanding (heard but “did not understand”). In English, this is similar to “hear” (in general, as in hearing unclear words) and “listen” (as in hearing and understanding words). The alleged contradiction is resolved, by the study of the Greek text and by accurate translation.

(3) Logic

Thirdly, logically, if a Christian theist denies the inerrancy of the Bible, then he must affirm either that God is not perfect or that the Bible is not His inspired word. Christian theists, who affirm that God is perfect but that the Bible contains errors, are not logical, since a perfect God would not inspire errors.

Instead, if God inspired the Bible, and if He is perfect (making no mistakes or errors), then the Bible would contain no mistakes or errors. The reasoning is valid, but is it sound? It is, as will be elaborated. First, however, an important consideration needs to be noted.

(4) Consideration

Finally, consider that the Old Testament – in Hebrew and Aramaic, by about 31 authors – was written from about 1400 BC (the Pentateuch) to about 400 BC (Malachi). The New Testament – in Koine Greek, by nine authors – was written from about 44 AD to about 95 AD.

The authors were from the Middle East, Africa, and Europe. They lived in different historical periods and in different cultures. The authors had varying personalities, writing styles, educational levels, and positions. Some were kings, fishermen, priests, government officials, farmers, shepherds, and doctors. (Sources: my college studies on Survey of the Old Testament and Survey of the New Testament. Suggested sources for further study are: Concise Old Testament Survey, on, by the late J. Hampton Keathley III, ThM, 2/2/2009 and Concise New Testament Survey, on, by the late J. Hampton Keathley III, ThM, 2/2/2009.)

The Bible – the compilation of sixty-six books, over more than a thousand years, by about forty different authors, in three languages – does not contain historical errors, as will be explained. Could one book – not a compilation of books, written over only a century, by only a few different authors, in only one language – be without error and need no revision? It is doubted that such a book could be written – without God guiding the authors. For example, the occasional work on this article started last November. In the process, this sole writer has revised and corrected the draft several times. Once published, the article may need slight revision.

The Specific Argument from Historical Accuracy

The historical accuracy of the Bible -- which human authors could not have accomplished alone -- is now presented. The specific argument from historical accuracy is:

If the Bible has the characteristic of historical accuracy that human authors could not have accomplished alone, then the Bible is the inspired word of God. The Bible has historical accuracy that human authors could not have accomplished alone. Therefore, the Bible is the inspired word of God.

This article affirms the selected point on historical accuracy. Other selected points of biblical accuracy could be affirmed. References to other scholarly sources will be listed, for further personal study. Any reader, who is critical of this affirmative and who challenges the forthcoming conclusion, is welcome to argue a rebuttal in the comments section.

Secular history books are usually accurate. Some are redacted and revised, to correct mistakes. The Bible is not a history book, per se, in a secular sense. It does, however, contain historical narrative – such as in the Pentateuch (Genesis - Deuteronomy), the twelve books of history (Joshua - Esther), the four gospels, Acts, and historical references in other books.

The historical accuracy of the Bible is a necessary requirement for it to be inspired -- meaning that the Bible, to be considered inspired, must be accurate historically. If it is not historically accurate, then the Bible could not be inspired, by a perfect God, who makes no mistakes. (The Koran and the Book of Mormon, for example, contain known historical errors; therefore, they cannot be inspired by God. See, for example, The Bible vs. other Holy Books, on Biblical Science Institute, Jason Lisle, PhD, 9/21/2018.)

Historical accuracy is also a sufficient requirement that proves the inspiration of the Bible. The sufficiency is established, in that the historical accuracy of the Bible -- which is beyond the ability of uninspired authors -- is proved by the discovery that its history is exactly accurate. Archaeological discoveries corroborate the historical narratives in the Bible.

Over a century ago, skeptics stated that the Bible was merely a compilation of folklore, legend, and myth and that it was not accurate historically. Biblical history had not yet been corroborated by secular sources. Thousands of archaeological discoveries, over the last century to now, however, have corroborated the historical accuracy of the Bible. Some former skeptics became believers, once the exactly accurate history of the Bible was discovered.

Please note that archaeology is not an exact science, such as mathematics. It is evolving, with ongoing improvements in method. Discoveries can be incomplete and subject to the opinions, interpretations, and worldviews of the archaeologists.

To say, therefore, that archaeology “proves” the Bible is incorrect. Such a statement places archaeology above and in a position of alleged authority over the Bible, which is incorrect thinking. Archaeology, however, does corroborate (or support) the historical records in the Bible. It does not do so, for other so-called inspired books, such as the Book of Mormon, and so forth. In fact, archaeologists use historical biblical records as a guide to their archaeological studies.

References to the Proof

The following is a select list of five scholarly and online sources, of many such sources, that present archaeological discoveries that corroborate biblical history. These sources include citations to additional works. This select list can be used as a qualitative and encyclopedic reference point, for further studies.

First, please read carefully the Answers in Genesis article, Chapter 25: Does Archaeology Support the Bible? By Dr. Clifford Wilson, published 1/24/2008, last featured 8/27/2014. The article is included, as a chapter, in The New Answers Book 1. For all their free online books, see Answers in Genesis: Online Books, which includes The New Answers Book 1. (It is noteworthy to mention that the author of Chapter 25, Dr. Clifford Wilson, is deceased, according to Dr. Clifford Wilson Passes Into Glory, on, by Chris Field, 4/13/2012. Dr. Wilson's written work, however, continues to live.)

Dr. Wilson's Chapter 25, in The New Answers Book 1, lists thirteen sections on biblical history. Each section includes three major archaeological evidences, providing a total of thirty-nine evidences. The thirteen sections are as follows:

Genesis 1 - 11, Genesis 11 - 36, Genesis 37 - 50, Exodus to Deuteronomy, Joshua to Saul, David to Solomon, the Assyrian Period, the Babylonians and Nebuchadnezzar, Cyrus and the Medo-Persian Empire, Ezra and Nehemiah, the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Person of Our Lord Jesus, and the New Testament and the Early Church.

In his concluding remarks, Dr. Wilson stated:

Archaeology has done much to demonstrate that “the Bible was right after all.” Its early records of creation, Eden, the Flood, long-living men, and the dispersal of the nations are not mere legends after all. Other tablets recording the same events have been recovered, but they are often distorted and corrupted.

The Bible record is immensely superior, and quite credible. Those early Bible records can no longer be written off as myth or legend.

After having studied the extensive article, which includes online references to other sources, Dr. Wilson's conclusion is valid. In fact, the Answers in Genesis, section on Archaeology contains a wealth of information that confirms the historical accuracy of the Bible, in Old and New Testaments.

Second, for an in-depth study of Christian apologetics, the Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics, by the late [7/21/1932 - 7/1/2019] Dr. Norman L. Geisler, 1999 (Baker Books, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA) -- is an excellent source. The establishment of a free account, on Internet Archive, will allow a free 14-day loan, for online reading. The encyclopedia is found at Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics, on Internet Archive.

The section on Archaeology, Old Testament (pages 48-52), concludes:

In every period of Old Testament history, we find that there is good evidence from archaeology that the Scriptures speak the truth. In many instances, the Scriptures even reflect firsthand knowledge of the times and customs it describes. While many have doubted the accuracy of the Bible, time and continued research have consistently demonstrated that the Word of God is better informed than its critics.

In fact, while thousands of finds from the ancient world support in broad outline and often in detail the biblical picture, not one incontrovertible find has ever contradicted the Bible.

The section on Archaeology, New Testament (pages 46-48), begins by stating:

Archaeological evidence for the reliability of the New Testament is overwhelming
(see New Testament, Dating of; New Testament, Historicity of). This evidence will be summarized in three parts: the historical accuracy of Luke, the testimony of secular historians, and the physical evidence relating to Christ’s crucifixion (see Christ, Death of).

The section on Acts, Historicity of (pages 4-8), concludes by stating, in part:

The historicity of the book of Acts is confirmed by overwhelming evidence. Nothing like this amount of detailed confirmation exists for another book from antiquity. This is not only a direct confirmation of the earliest Christian belief in the death and resurrection of Christ, but also, indirectly, of the Gospel record, since the author of Acts (Luke) also wrote a detailed Gospel. This Gospel directly parallels the other two Synoptic Gospels. The best evidence is that this material was composed by a.d. 60, only twenty-seven years after the death of Jesus. This places the writing during the lifetime of eyewitnesses to the events recorded (cf. Luke 1:1-4). This does not allow time for an alleged mythological development by persons living generations after the events.

Dr. Geisler's Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics is a classic work, which continues to live. The reader is encouraged to access the complete work, by means of the website, mentioned previously. Therein, the reasoning for each conclusion, which this article has quoted, is given.

Third, another excellent source, by the late Dr. Norman Geisler, is his Christian Apologetics, Second Edition, 2013 (Baker Book House, provided on Internet Archive). (There are six original download options, which are provided freely.) Dr. Geisler's book unfolds the complete reasoning behind Christian apologetics in general. The complete reading of this excellent book, once downloaded, is encouraged.

For the purpose of this article, however, please refer to Chapter 18: The Historical Reliability of the New Testament and the section Support for the Credibility of the New Testament Writers from Numerous Archaeological Finds. Therein, the abundant archaeological corroboration, of the New Testament historical record, is established.

In his Summary and Conclusion, to Chapter 18, the late Dr. Geisler wrote:

. . . we can be assured that the New Testament documents are historically reliable, for we have more, earlier, and better-copied manuscripts for it than for any other book from antiquity. Further, we posses more eyewitness and contemporary testimony in these documents that is supported by archaeological, historical, and legal sources than for any other book from that time.

Therefore, unless one is willing to wipe out all testimony from the past -- including all of secular history and even science -- we must conclude that not only do we have reliable copies of what Jesus and his apostles said, but what they said is reliable. In short, when the New Testament declares that Jesus said it, he actually said it. And when it affirms that Jesus did it, he actually did it. The New Testament is not just a good story; it is a true story!

The fourth source is The bearing of recent discovery on the trustworthiness of the New Testament, by Sir William Mitchell Ramsay [1851 - 1939], 1915 (Hodder and Stoughton, London, available on Internet Archive). (There are eleven original download options, which are provided freely.) The downloading and reading of the complete book is encouraged.

Sir William Ramsay was a renowned scholar. He started, as was common in his time, as a skeptic, regarding the historical authenticity of Acts. His archaeological expedition in Asia Minor intending to disprove the historical records in Acts. After years of research, however, Sir Ramsay concluded that Acts was precise and accurate history.

In PART II. THE LECTURES, under chapter III. The First Change of Judgment, Sir Ramsay wrote, on page 38:

But about 1880 to 1890 the book of the Acts was regarded as the weakest part of the New Testament. No one that had any regard for his [Luke's, MF] reputation as a scholar cared to say a word in its defence. The most conservative of theological scholars, as a rule, thought the wisest plan of defence for the New Testament as a whole was to say as little as possible about the Acts.

I began then to study the Acts in search of geographical and antiquarian evidence, hardly expecting to find any, but convinced that, if there were any, it would bear on the condition of Asia Minor in the time when the writer lived.

Further, however, in the same PART II, under chapter VI. General Impression of Trustworthiness in the Acts, Sir Ramsay concluded, on page 89:

The more I have studied the narrative of the Acts, and the more I have learned year after year about Graeco-Roman society and thoughts and fashions, and organization in those provinces, the more I admire and the better I understand. I set out to look for truth on the borderland where Greece and Asia meet, and found it here [in Acts, MF]. You may press the words of Luke in a degree far beyond any other historian's, and they stand the keenest scrutiny and the hardest treatment, provided always that the critic knows the subject and does not go beyond the limits of science and of justice.

In Acts, Luke mentions thirty-two countries, fifty-four cities, nine Mediterranean islands, and ninety-five people (sixty-two of whom are not named elsewhere in the New Testament). Luke's references, when compared to external sources, are always exactly correct. Sir William Ramsay's work established these facts, over a century ago.

Finally and fifthly, one of the monumental works by John William (J. W.) McGarvey (deceased, 3/1/1829 - 10/6/1911) is Lands of the Bible: A Geographical and Topographical Description of Palestine, with Letters of Travel in Egypt, Syria, Asia Minor and Greece, 1881 (J. B. Lippincott and Co., Philadelphia, PA). The Restoration Movement Pages (the property of Abilene Christian University Library) provides access to The Electronic Edition and the Table of Contents, without expense. The reading of the entire work is encouraged. Part First: The Geography of Palestine includes seven chapters. Part Second: The Topography of Palestine includes nine chapters. Part Third: Letters of Travel includes 22 letters.

The reference, for this article, is Part Second, Chapter IX, An Argument From The Land And The Book. The late Dr. McGarvey's written word continues to speak. The following quotation is from the sixth paragraph of that chapter. (The emboldening of key sentences are by the author of this article, not by Dr. McGarvey.)

That there is a general agreement between the Bible and the geography of Palestine is a well-known fact. Its plains, mountains, valleys, rivers, lakes, cities, and deserts are in all parts of the Bible correctly named and correctly located. The political divisions known to exist are invariably recognized, as are also all the changes of government through which the country passed in the course of its long and varied history. In not a single known instance, from the beginning to the end of the book, is there a failure in any one of these particulars. This would be beyond precedent, even if the entire Bible had been written at one time by a single author; but when we remember that its various books were composed by more than thirty different authors, who lived in different ages, extending over a period of 1500 years, we can but be astonished at the result. But the ground for astonishment is not fully realized until we remember that all other historical writings that have come down to us from antiquity are notoriously erroneous. As modern research into ancient history has been prosecuted, errors in all the particulars mentioned above have been detected in ancient writers, and even among modern writers themselves the chief task of those of later date is to correct the errors of their predecessors. . . . But no one has ever yet found cause to publish a corrected edition of Bible history, nor have the researches of modern antiquaries had any other effect than to confirm and illustrate its local allusions and its historical statements. On this fact alone we might base our argument for the entire credibility of the Bible writers; but this is only the beginning of the story.

The five sources, as referenced, have not been refuted and continue to stand the test of time. The citations of those sources, in this brief article, simply present the proof that previous scholarship has already established. The proof does not need to be re-established, since it continues to stand as established.


The specific argument from historical accuracy is:

If the Bible has the characteristic of historical accuracy that human authors could not have accomplished alone, then the Bible is the inspired word of God. The Bible has historical accuracy that human authors could not have accomplished alone. Therefore, the Bible is the inspired word of God.

The Bible – the compilation of sixty-six books, over more than a thousand years, by about forty different authors, in three languages – does not contain historical errors. This article affirms that such an accomplishment would have been beyond the ability of uninspired authors.

The conclusion, therefore, is valid. The Bible is the inspired word of God. The reader of this article is encouraged to read the entirety of the works, which have been cited.

Secular history books are revised and have later editions, to update and correct previous editions. Where are the revised, corrected, and later editions of the Bible? There are none.

Theodore Beza (1519 - 1605), the 16th century Swiss theologian, is attributed, incorrectly, to have stated that the Bible is an anvil that has worn out many hammers. Beza, instead, spoke of the church as “. . . an anvil that has worn out many hammers.” (Source: Theodore Beza: The Counsellor of the French Reformation, by Henry Martyn Baird (G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York and London, The Knickerbocker Press, 1899) marked up by Lance George Marshall, on Monergism. See especially Chapter XVI.)

That statement, however, rings true of the Bible also.

The conclusion of the apostle Peter's introductory chapter to the Christians at Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia quotes from Isaiah 40:6-8 and states:

For, “All people are like grass, and all their glory is like the flowers of the field; the grass withers and the flowers fall, but the word of the Lord endures forever.” (1 Peter 1:24-25, NIV)

This article cannot improve on the apostle Peter's inspired statement. As the introduction to this article has stated, “The Bible is the only book, inspired by God, that guides us along the straight path, to the Light.”

I trust, dear reader, that you are following the biblical path to the Light. If you are not, then please use the Contact Form, if you wish personal communication. If you are, then may this article assist you, in the bringing of many to the Light.

As a personal note, this article is published on the date, in 1983, when my maternal grandfather, Aby William Wood (9/4/1901 – 3/14/1983) went to his heavenly home. I wear his middle name with honor. Before he passed and while in the hospital bed, enduring physical suffering, Papaw Wood raised both arms to heaven, looked upward, and prayed, “Please take me now, Lord. I'm ready to come home.” Papaw Wood was ready to see his Lord, whom he had served and in whom he had believed, as a Christian, for many decades. This article is dedicated to the faith of my beloved maternal grandfather, whom I will see again, once I join so many others and him up there. This is the evidence-based hope of faith. It is not blind hope. It is hope, as inspired by faith, which is based on evidence. I still have Papaw Wood's Bible. I can see where he underlined and made notes around several biblical texts. Papaw's Bible guided him along the straight path to the Light.